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  1. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1:What is Biology? Unit 2:Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4:Genetics Unit 5:Change Through Time Unit 6:Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7:Plants Unit 8:Invertebrates Unit 9:Vertebrates Unit 10:The Human Body

  2. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1:Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2:Principles of Ecology Chapter 3:Communities and Biomes Chapter 4:Population Biology Chapter 5:Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Chapter 6:The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7:A View of the Cell Chapter 8:Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9:Energy in a Cell

  3. Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10:Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11:DNA and Genes Chapter 12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13:Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14:The History of Life Chapter 15:The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16:Primate Evolution Chapter 17:Organizing Life’s Diversity Table of Contents – pages iv-v

  4. Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18:Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19:Protists Chapter 20:Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21:What Is a Plant? Chapter 22:The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23:Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24:Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages iv-v

  5. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25:What Is an Animal? Chapter 26:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27:Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28:Arthropods Chapter 29:Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

  6. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30:Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31:Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32:Mammals Chapter 33:Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34:Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35:The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36:The Nervous System Chapter 37:Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38:Reproduction and Development Chapter 39:Immunity from Disease

  7. Unit Overview – pages 890-891 The Human Body Protection, Support, and Locomotion The Digestive and Endocrine Systems The Nervous System Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Reproduction and Development Immunity from Disease

  8. Chapter Contents – page xiii Chapter 37Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion 37.1:The Respiratory System 37.1:Section Check 37.2:The Circulatory System 37.2:Section Check 37.3:The Urinary System 37.3:Section Check Chapter 37Summary Chapter 37Assessment

  9. Chapter Intro-page 970 What You’ll Learn You will identify the functions of the respiratory system and explain the mechanics of breathing. You will describe the structure and function of the different types of blood cells and trace the pathway of blood circulation through the body.

  10. Chapter Intro-page 970 What You’ll Learn You will describe the structure and function of the urinary system.

  11. 37.1 Section Objectives – page 971 Section Objectives: • Identify the structures involved in external respiration. • Contrast external and cellular respiration. • Explain the mechanics of breathing.

  12. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Passageways and Lungs • Your respiratory system is made of a pair of lungs and a series of passageways, each one extending deeper into your body. These passageways include the nasal passages, the throat, the windpipe, and the bronchi. • Breathing is just one of the functions that the respiratory system carries out.

  13. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Passageways and Lungs Pharynx Nasal cavity Medulla oblongata • Respiration, the process of gas exchange, is another important function performed by the respiratory system. Epiglottis Larynx Esophagus Trachea Bronchus Right lung Bronchiole Left lung Diaphragm

  14. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 The path air takes • The first step in the process of respiration involves taking air into your body through your nose or mouth. • Air flows into the pharynx, or throat, passes the epiglottis, and moves through the larynx.

  15. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 The path air takes • It then travels down the windpipe, or trachea (TRAY kee uh), a tubelike passageway that leads to two tubes, or bronchi (BRAHN ki) (singular, bronchus), which lead into the lungs. • When you swallow food, the epiglottis covers the entrance to the trachea, which prevents food from getting into the air passages.

  16. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 The path air takes Pharynx Nasal cavity Medulla oblongata Epiglottis Larynx Esophagus Trachea Bronchus Right lung Bronchiole Left lung Diaphragm

  17. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Cleaning dirty air • To prevent foreign material from reaching the lungs, the nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi are lined with ciliated cells that secrete mucus.

  18. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Cleaning dirty air • The cilia constantly beat upward in the direction of your throat, where foreign material can be swallowed or expelled by coughing or sneezing. Cilia

  19. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Alveoli: The place of gas exchange • Each bronchus branches into bronchioles, which in turn branch into numerous microscopic tubes that eventually open into thousands of thin-walled sacs called alveoli. Alveoli

  20. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Alveoli: The place of gas exchange • Alveoli (al VEE uh li) are the sacs of the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion between the air and blood. • The clusters of alveoli are surrounded by networks of tiny blood vessels, or capillaries.

  21. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Alveoli: The place of gas exchange Alveoli • Blood in these vessels has come from the cells of the body and contains wastes from cellular respiration. O2 – rich blood Capillary network CO2 – rich blood Alveolus

  22. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Alveoli: The place of gas exchange • External respiration involves the exchange of oxygen or carbon dioxide between the air in the alveoli and the blood that circulates through the walls of the alveoli.

  23. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Respiration and Lung Function Click image to view movie.

  24. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Blood transport of gases • Once oxygen from the air diffuses into the blood vessels surrounding the alveoli, it is pumped by the heart to the body cells, where it is used for cellular respiration. • Cellular respiration is the process by which cells use oxygen to break down glucose and release energy in the form of ATP.

  25. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Blood transport of gases • Carbon dioxide is a waste product of the process. • The carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood, which carries it back to the lungs. • Carbon dioxide from the body diffuses from the blood into the air spaces in the alveoli.

  26. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Blood transport of gases • During exhalation, this carbon dioxide is removed from your body. • At the same time, oxygen diffuses from the air in the alveoli into the blood, making the blood rich in oxygen.

  27. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 The Mechanics of Breathing Position of ribs when exhaling Lung when exhaling • The action of your diaphragm and the muscles between your ribs enable you to breathe in and breathe out. Position of diaphragm when exhaling

  28. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 The Mechanics of Breathing Position of ribs when exhaling • When relaxed, your diaphragm is positioned in a dome shape beneath your lungs, decreasing the volume of the chest cavity and forcing air out of the lungs. Lung when exhaling Position of diaphragm when exhaling

  29. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 The Mechanics of Breathing Lung when inhaling Position of ribs when inhaling • When contracting, the diaphragm flattens, enlarging the chest cavity and drawing air into the lungs. Position of diaphragm when inhaling

  30. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 The Mechanics of Breathing • The alveoli in healthy lungs are elastic, they stretch as you inhale and return to their original size as you exhale. • The alveoli still contain a small amount of air after you exhale.

  31. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Control of Respiration • Breathing is usually an involuntary process. • It is partially controlled by an internal feedback mechanism that involves signals being sent to the medulla oblongata about the chemistry of your blood.

  32. Section 37.1 Summary – pages 971-974 Control of Respiration • The medulla oblongata responds to higher levels of carbon dioxide in your body by sending nerve signals to the rib muscles and diaphragm. • The nerve signals cause these muscles to contract, and you inhale.

  33. Section 1 Check Question 1 Where does gas exchange occur during respiration? A. in the blood B. in capillaries C. in alveoli D. in the diaphragm

  34. Section 1 Check Alveoli The answer is C. Alveoli are the sacs of the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged. O2 – rich blood Capillary network CO2 – rich blood Alveolus

  35. Section 1 Check Question 2 How does the diaphragm enable your lungs to fill with air when you inhale?

  36. Section 1 Check Lung when inhaling Position of ribs when inhaling When you inhale, the diaphragm flattens, enlarging the chest cavity and drawing air into the lungs. Position of diaphragm when inhaling

  37. Section 1 Check Question 3 What role does the medulla oblongata play in respiration? Answer The medulla oblongata responds to higher levels of carbon dioxide in your blood by sending nerve signals to the rib muscles and diaphragm. The nerve signals cause your muscles to contract and you inhale.

  38. 37.2 Section Objectives – page 975 Section Objectives: • Distinguish among the various components of blood and among blood groups. • Trace the route blood takes through the body and heart. • Explain how heart rate is controlled.

  39. Section 37.2 Summary – pages 975-984 Your Blood: Fluid Transport • Your blood is a tissue composed of fluid, cells, and fragments of cells. Table 37.1 Blood Components Components Characteristics Transport oxygen and some carbon dioxide; lack a nucleus; contain hemoglobin Red blood cells Large; several different types; all contain nuclei; defend the body against disease White blood cells Cell fragments needed for blood clotting Platelets Liquid; contains proteins; transports red and white blood cells, platelets, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, gases, and inorganic salts Plasma • The fluid portion of blood is called plasma.

  40. Section 37.2 Summary – pages 975-984 Your Blood: Fluid Transport • Plasma is straw colored and makes up about 55 percent of the total volume of blood. • Blood cells-both red and white-and cell fragments are suspended in plasma.

  41. Section 37.2 Summary – pages 975-984 Red blood cells: Oxygen carriers Side view 2.0 micrometers • The round, disk-shaped cells in blood are red blood cells. Top view 7.5 micrometers • Red blood cells carry oxygen to body cells.

  42. Section 37.2 Summary – pages 975-984 Red blood cells: Oxygen carriers • They make up 44 percent of the total volume of your blood, and are produced in the red bone marrow of your ribs, humerus, femur sternum, and other long bones. • Red blood cells remain active in the bloodstream for about 120 days, then they break down and are removed as waste.

  43. Section 37.2 Summary – pages 975-984 Red blood cells: Oxygen carriers • Old red blood cells are destroyed in your spleen, an organ of the lymphatic system, and in your liver.

  44. Section 37.2 Summary – pages 975-984 Oxygen in the blood • Red blood cells are equipped with an iron-containing protein molecule called hemoglobin (HEE muh gloh bun).

  45. Section 37.2 Summary – pages 975-984 Oxygen in the blood • Oxygen becomes loosely bound to the hemoglobin in blood cells that have entered the lungs. • These oxygenated blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body’s cells. • As blood passes through body tissues with low oxygen concentrations, oxygen is released from the hemoglobin and diffuses into the tissues.

  46. Section 37.2 Summary – pages 975-984 Carbon dioxide in the blood • Hemoglobin carries some carbon dioxide as well as oxygen. • Once biological work has been done in a cell, wastes in the form of carbon dioxide diffuse into the blood and are carried in the bloodstream to the lungs.

  47. Section 37.2 Summary – pages 975-984 Carbon dioxide in the blood • About 70 percent of this carbon dioxide combines with water in the blood plasma to form bicarbonate. • The remaining 30 percent travels back to the lungs dissolved in the plasma or attached to hemoglobin molecules that have already released their oxygen into the tissues.

  48. Section 37.2 Summary – pages 975-984 White blood cells: Infection fighters • White blood cells play a major role in protecting your body from foreign substances and from microscopic organisms that cause disease. White Blood Cells • They make up only one percent of the total volume of your blood.

  49. Section 37.2 Summary – pages 975-984 Blood clotting • Your blood contains small cell fragments called platelets, which help blood clot after an injury. • Platelets help link together a sticky network of protein fibers called fibrin, which forms a web over the wound that traps escaping blood cells.