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  1. Islam Review

  2. Identifications • Muslim: person who follows Islam • Ka’aba: Islam’s holiest shrine – located in Mecca – Arabic for cube • Bedouin: desert nomads • Hadith: sayings and teachings of Muhammad that did not come directly from the Angel Gabriel • Mecca: birthplace of Islam; holiest site

  3. Identifications • Mosque: Muslim place of worship • Medina: first Islamic community, 2nd Holy city, Muhammad gains political and religious power • Hejira: 622 – Muhammad’s journey from Mecca to Medina; marks first expansion of Islam • Ramadan: Muslim religious holiday of fasting and prayer: commemorates when Muhammad first received the Qur’an from the Angel Gabriel

  4. Identifications Night of Power: holiest night in Islam: Gabriel first appears to Muhammad Eidul-Fitr: Muslim feast that celebrates end of Ramadan People of the Book: Islamic term for Jews and Christians Shariah: Islamic law = Qur’an and Hadith Jihad: inner struggle to fulfill one’s religious duties + holy war in defense of Islam

  5. Identifications Halal: “permissible,” with respect to food and drink: no pork or alcohol Allah: Arabic word for God Sunni: sect of Islam: believed caliph could be anyone qualified Shi’ite: believed caliph should be direct descendant of Muhammad Caliph: religious and secular leader of Islam

  6. Identifications Umayyad Caliphate: • Capital was Damascus, Syria • Predominantly Sunni • Emphasis on Arab language and culture

  7. Identifications Abbassid Caliphate: • Capital was Baghdad • More inclusive of other people: Persians, Turks, Indians • First 100 years was known as the Golden Age of Muslim Rule

  8. Identify the Five Pillars of Islam 1. Declaration of Faith (Shahada) “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His Prophet.” 2. Prayers (Salah) 5 X/day: face Mecca 3. Charity (Sawm): give to the old & poor 4. Fasting (Zakat): during Ramadan 5 .Pilgrimage (Hajj): must complete a pilgrimage to Mecca

  9. What are the two major sects of Islam: Reason for split? Two main branches of Islam: Sunni: caliph can be anyone qualified Shi’ite = caliph must be a direct descendant of Muhammad

  10. Give three reasons for the spread of Islam in the 7th century. • The Arab armies were united in their beliefs • Weakness of Byzantine and Sassanid Empires • Many people welcomed the Arabs as liberators • Imposition of the jizya, or non-believer tax • Jihad or Holy War

  11. List three lasting contributions of Islamic Civilization • Made advances in medicine, mathematics, and architecture • Improvements in navigation: mariner’s compass and astrolabe • Beautiful poetry Arabian Nights, The Rubaiyat • Muslim scholars preserved much Classical Knowledge

  12. List three similarities between the three monotheistic religions: • Concept of social justice and human equality • Belief in an afterlife • Recognized many of the same Prophets • Holy Bible was considered holy • Both emphasized prayer and charity

  13. The Dome of the Rock

  14. The Ka’aba

  15. The Alhambra

  16. The TajMahal

  17. The Al Masjid Mosque in Mecca

  18. True/False Questions Examples: • The Hadith is a sacred text in Islam, because it is the direct word of God communicated to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. • The Abbassid Caliphate was short-lived because it did not allow people of other ethnic backgrounds into positions of power.

  19. Multi-Blank Multiple Choice Example: Muhammad was a __________ who, at the age of 40, was first visited by __________. He then began to recite the ________. • Soldier; God; the Holy Bible • merchant; the Angel Gabriel; the Qur’an • Farmer; the Angel Gabriel; Hadith • Bedouin tribesman; Abraham; the Torah