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Bulgaria. Georgia. Black Sea. Kyrgistan. Turkey. Greece. Pontic. Mt. Ararat. Armenia. Azerbaijan. Uzbekistan. Turkmenistan. Anatolia. Turkey. Azerb. China. Caspian Sea. Taurus. Tajikistan. Kopet. Fertile Crescent/ Mesopotamia. Tigris R. Khyber Pass. Elbruz. Syria. Cyp.

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Iran

Bulgaria

Georgia

Black Sea

Kyrgistan

Turkey

Greece

Pontic

Mt. Ararat

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Uzbekistan

Turkmenistan

Anatolia

Turkey

Azerb.

China

Caspian

Sea

Taurus

Tajikistan

Kopet

Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia

Tigris R.

Khyber Pass

Elbruz

Syria

Cyp.

Euphrates R.

Leb

Med. Sea

Afghanistan

Iran

Iraq

Jordan R.

Hindu Kush

Jordan

Israel

Dead Sea

Sinai Pen.

Zagros

Kuwait

Pakistan

Arabian Peninsula

Strait of Hormuz

Egypt

Persian Gulf

Libya

Nile R.

India

India

Q

Saudi

Arabia

Gulf of Oman

UAE

Red Sea

Oman

Rub al-Kahli

(Empty Quarter)

Arabian Sea

Yemen

Eritrea

Sudan

Gulf of Aden

Dj

Ethiopia

Somalia


Iran

Strait of

Gibraltar

Suez Canal

Greece

Spain

Turkey

Syria

Med. Sea

Atlantic

Ocean

Atlas Mtns.

Iraq

Tunisia

Morocco

Israel

Jordan

Sinai Pen.

Algeria

Sahara Desert

Libya

Saudi

Arabia

Nubian

Desert

Egypt

Western Sahara

Lake Nasser

AhaggarMtns.

Mauritania

Nile

Mali

Red Sea

Niger

Chad

Yemen

Sudan

Eritrea

Ethiopia



Landforms
Landforms

Mountains

  • Cover Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan

    • Turkey: Source of Tigris and Euphrates

      • Mt. Ararat (Eastern Turkey) – Possible location of Noah’s Ark?

    • Afghanistan/Pakistan: Hindu Kush & Khyber Pass

    • Big enough to limit movement and weather

  • N. Africa

    • Atlas Mountains: ‘Extension’ of the Appalachian Mountains

    • Ahaggar Mountains: Middle of Sahara Desert


Iran

Rivers

  • Tigris and Euphrates

    • Area known as the “Fertile Crescent” and “Mesopotamia”

      • Origins of modern civilization

      • Origins of domesticating cattle, sheep, goats and pigs

  • Jordan River

    • Border of Israel and Jordan

      • Main water source for both

    • Feeds the Dead Sea

      • Lowest point on Earth (1,339 ft. below)

      • High salt content; water is 30% salt!! (no fish)

      • No outlet (endorheic lake: dead end)


Iran

  • Nile River

    • World’s longest = 4160 miles (NY  LA = 2462)

    • Fed by Lake Victoria and Ethiopian Highlands

      • Flows S  N

    • 95% of Egyptians live along Nile

      • Transportation, water source, soil deposits for farmland

    • Floods with winter rain and snow melt

      • Aswan High Dam = stops flooding, makes electricity

        • BUT…Stops new soil deposits

      • Creates Lake Nasser = World’s 2nd largest man-made lake

    • Hippos and crocodiles= dangerous to humans


Iran

21.4 ft., 2400 lbs

11 – 16 ft., 1100 lbs


Iran

Deserts

  • General facts:

    • Very little rain: <1.5 inches per year

    • Shifting sand; sandstorms

    • Temp swings: 30° - 120°

    • Water usage limited to rivers or desalinization

      • Some oases

  • Sahara Desert

    • World’s largest desert (bigger than US!)

    • Some sandstorms blow sand across the Atlantic!


Iran

  • Arabian Peninsula

    • Desert covers Peninsula up into Iraq

    • Southeastern part = Empty Quarter (Rub’ al Khali)

  • Depressions and basins

    • Some 400 ft. below sea level; 5000 ft. below surrounding area





Resources
Resources

Farming

  • Only in river valleys, or near rivers

    • Jordan River Valley, Nile River, Fertile Crescent

    • Saudi Arabia = center pivot irrigation

  • Most is personal farming

    • Commercial farming is biggest in Israel & Egypt

      • Figured out a way to irrigate large land areas

  • Soil is very sandy: not good for growing


Iran

Oil

  • #1 resource

  • Found along the shores of the Persian Gulf and up into Iraq

  • Most is sold for export

    • U.S. is one of their biggest customers

  • OPEC: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

    Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, UAE, Algeria, Libya

    • Controls the amount of production and sale of oil

    • On 75% of world’s total oil; ~40% of world’s output

    • Also includes Venezuela, Nigeria and Indonesia


Iran

How much oil?

Saudi Arabia

  • Produces up to 8.5 million barrels of oil per day

  • 1 barrel = 42 gallons

    = 357,000,000gallons!

    $83.80/barrel

    = $712,300,000




Iran

Water

  • Most important natural resource

  • Limited supplies:

    • Aquifers

      • Very old (145 million years ago)

      • Limited: not renewable once they are tapped out

      • Used for agriculture and human consumption

    • Rivers

      • Tigris, Euphrates, Jordan, Nile

    • Desalinization

      • Only used for human consumption


Iran

Water in Saudi Arabia

  • Surface water = 10% of total used

  • Groundwater in aquifers = 84% of total used

    • Water from deep wells (~3000 ft. deep!)

  • 70% of drinking water is desalinized

    • 27 desalinization plants

      • Plants also generate electricity

    • Pipe desalinized water 290 miles to Riyadh

  • Other sources for Riyadh = rainwater dams