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Religion. AP Human Geography. What is religion?. Religion is a set of common beliefs and practices generally held by a group of people . Religion is human beings' relation to the things that they regard as holy, sacred, spiritual, or divine .

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Religion

Religion

AP Human Geography


What is religion
What is religion?

  • Religion is a set of common beliefs and practices generally held by a group of people.

  • Religion is human beings' relation to the things that they regard as holy, sacred, spiritual, or divine.

  • Humans often get their sense of purpose and moral values from religion.

  • Religious beliefs are found in virtually every society throughout human history.


What questions does religion answer
What questions does religion answer?

  • Origins (where did we come from?)

  • Purpose/meaning (why are we here?)

  • Destiny (where are we going? what happens when we die?)

  • Who are we? (the nature of human nature)

  • Who/what is god? (the nature of Ultimate Reality)


Universalizing vs ethnic religions
Universalizing vs. Ethnic Religions

Universalizing

Ethnic

  • Global

  • Appeals to all people

  • Location does not matter

  • Ex. Christianity, Buddhism, Islam

  • Local

  • Appeals to one group of people in one place

  • Ex. Judaism, Hinduism, Taoism, Shinto


Mono vs poly theism
Mono vs. Poly Theism

Monotheism

Polytheism

  • Belief in one god.

  • Ex. Judaism, Christianity, Islam

  • Belief in multiple gods.

  • Ex. Hinduism, Animism.


Divisions within a religion
Divisions Within a Religion

  • Branch- large and fundamental division within a religion.

    • Ex. Islam in divided into Sunni and Shia

    • Ex. Christianity is divided into Catholic, Protestant, and East Orthodox

  • Denomination- division of a single branch.

    • Ex. Protestant denominations include Baptist, Lutheran, and Methodist.

  • Sect- a small group that has broken away from the larger denomination.



Universalizing christianity
Universalizing: Christianity

  • Origin: Jerusalem (30 AD)

  • Founder: Jesus Christ (based on Judaism)

  • Diffusion: Roman Empire, European Colonization, Missionaries

  • Holy Book: Bible (Old and New Testament)

  • Major Branches: Catholic, Protestant, E. Orthodox

  • Core Beliefs/ Teachings:

    • Jesus was messiah that the Jews were waiting for/ son of God

    • Died on the cross to save humans from sin

    • Belief in Resurrection=heaven

  • Holy Places: Vatican, Church of Holy Sepulchre.

  • Modern Locations: All continents, predom. In NA, SA, EUR, AUS.

  • Followers: Over 2 billion




Universalizing islam
Universalizing: Islam

  • Origin: Saudi Arabia (622 AD)

  • Founder: Mohammad (based on Judaism)

  • Diffusion: Arab armies

  • Holy Book: Quran

  • Major Branches: Sunni, Shiite (Shia)

  • Core Beliefs/ Teachings:

    • 5 Pillars of Islam

    • Mohammed is most impt. Prophet

    • Jesus is prophet, but not as impt. As Mohammed

  • Holy Places: Mecca (Ka’ba), Medina

  • Modern Locations: SW Asia (Middle East), N. Africa, Central Asia, Southern Asia. Also Europe and NA.

  • Followers: 1.3 billion



Universalizing buddhism
Universalizing: Buddhism

  • Origin: Nepal (530 BC)

  • Founder: Siddhartha Gautama, original Buddha.

  • Diffusion: Magadhan Empire, merchants (China)

  • Holy Book: n/a

  • Major Branches: Mahayana, Theravada, Tantrayana.

  • Core Beliefs/ Teachings:

    • Four Noble Truths (Desire= Suffering)

    • Eightfold Path

    • Nirvana

    • Can follow other religions

  • Holy Places: 8 holy shrines, 4 miracle sites, all connect to Buddha.

  • Modern Locations: China, SE Asia

  • Followers: 400 million




Ethnic hinduism
Ethnic: Hinduism

  • Origin: 2500-1500 BC

  • Founder: No specific founder

  • Diffusion: Little diffusion, relocation

  • Holy Book: no single holy book

  • Core Beliefs/ Teachings:

    • Individual decides best way to worship god

    • Many paths to god

    • Polytheistic

    • No rigid rules

  • Holy Places: many (natural features, shrines, Ganges river)

  • Modern Locations: India (97%), Nepal

  • Followers: 900 million




Ethnic judaism
Ethnic: Judaism

  • Origin: Canaan (Israel) (2000 BC)

  • Founder: Abraham

  • Diffusion: Diaspora to Europe, to U.S. and Israel post- WWII

  • Holy Book: Torah (Old Testament)

  • Core Beliefs/ Teachings:

    • Ten Commandments

    • Monotheism

    • Still waiting for Messiah

  • Holy Places: Jerusalem, Western Wall, Mt. Sinai

  • Modern Locations: Israel (1/3), U.S. (1/3), rest of world (1/3)

  • Followers: 14 million




Other ethnic religions
Other Ethnic Religions

  • Confucianism (China)

    • Ethical principals for daily life

  • Daoism/ Taoism (China)

    • Based on teachings of Lao-Zi

  • Shinto (Japan)