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Ch.1 “The First Americans”. 30,000 Years Ago. The most recent ice age began. Much of the Earth was covered by glaciers and sheets of ice up to a mile thick. The World 30,000 yrs. ago. The most recent Ice Age began. . The World 30,000 yrs Ago!.

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30 000 years ago
30,000 Years Ago
  • The most recent ice age began.
  • Much of the Earth was covered by glaciers and sheets of ice up to a mile thick.
the world 30 000 yrs ago
The World 30,000 yrs. ago
  • The most recent Ice Age began.
the world 30 000 yrs ago1
The World 30,000 yrs Ago!
  • Because the water was locked in the glaciers, the oceans levels dropped 200ft.
  • This exposed a wide bridge of land between Asia and North America that scientists call, Beringia.
migration routes of the first americans
Migration Routes of the First Americans
  • Scientists believe that the First Americans Migrated on foot across Beringia to America.
  • Migrate: To move from one country or region, and settle in another.
  • The First People migrated ON FOOT, from Siberia in Asia, to Alaska (WHOA!)
  • **What is the strip of ocean called that separates Alaska & Asia, today?
  • Beringia’s grassland

attracted mammoths and

other Asian mammals.

  • Their herds eventually

spread eastward. (Towards


migration routes of the first americans1
Migration Routes of the First Americans!
  • 10,000-20,000 years ago, man followed the mammoth herds East towards America.
  • These people represent generations of Siberian hunter families, who relied on the mammoth for food.
  • In the Spring, fresh grasses attracted the Mammoth south into South America.
  • The Siberian hunters, followed their food source!
shift in climate
Shift in Climate
  • 10,000 yrs. Ago there was a shift in climate yet again. As temperatures rose, the glaciers melted, forcing water back into the ocean. The oceans began to rise, covering Beringia.
  • It was nice knowing you Beringia
results of temperature shift
Results of Temperature Shift
  • Bye Bye Beringia
  • Mammoths population decreases to extinction:
    • Over hunting
    • Disease
    • Climate change
what was the impact of the climate change on the first people
What was the impact of the climate change on the First People?
  • The descendants had of the Siberian hunters had adapt to this new environment and way of life. They had to find new sources of food and new materials for clothing and shelter.
  • This stage marks the transition of the First People, from strictly hunters, to hunter-gatherers or people who collect smaller animals, fish, collect edible plants and seeds for food.
  • At this stage in history we refer to the first people as “American Indians”
  • During the Ice Age, ocean levels dropped, revealing a long bridge of land scientists refer to as Beringia.
  • Mammoths traveled across this bridge to America, followed by Siberian hunters that utilized the mammoth as a food source.
  • The first Americans followed the Mammoth east (to America) then South (South America)
  • 10,000 yrs ago the Earth’s temperature rose, the glaciers melted, causing the ocean level to rise.
  • The result? BYE BYE BERINGIA. The ocean water flooded the land bridge.
  • The mammoth population in America became extinct forcing the First Americans to find ways to adapt to their new environment.
  • The first Americans shifted from Hunters to hunter-gatherers and became known as American Indians.
important vocab
Important Vocab
  • Beringia
  • Environment
  • Adapt
  • Hunter-gatherer
american indians
American Indians
  • (Refer to Migration Routes Map) As you can see, migration eastward into the United States expanded across the entire country.
  • Although the states did not exist as they do today, the country still contained natural barriers that help us separate it into regions.
  • The First People migrated ________ across_________ a land mass that connected _______ and _____________
  • As temperature began to rise, glaciers melted and Beringia ___________. The mammals also _____________.
  • Because of this temperature increase, the first people had to _________ to their environment.
  • They transitioned from being hunters to ____________ __________
native americans adapt to their environment
Native Americans Adapt to their Environment
  • The Native Americans settled in various cultural regions.
    • A cultural region is an area in which a group of people share a similar culture and language.
    • Each cultural region has a different climate and type of environment.
  • An Environment is everything that surrounds us- land water, animals and plants. Every environment also has a climate or long-term weather pattern.
  • Native Americans survived by adapting or changing their style of living to suit each environment, its climate, and its natural resources.
  • Cultural Region: an area in which a group of people share a similar culture and language.
  • Culture: A people’s way of life, including beliefs, customs, food, dwellings, and clothing.
  • Environment: All the physical surroundings in a place, including land, water, animals, plants, and climate.
natural resources
Natural Resources
  • Useful materials found in nature, including water, vegetation, animals and minerals.
  • Examples: In the frigid region of the far north, early Americans survived by hunting caribou in the summer and sea mammals in the winter. They used animal skin for clothing. They also made goggles out of bone, to shield their eyes from the sun1
native americans view of their e nvironment
Native Americans’ View of Their Environment
  • “From Wakan Tanka, the Great Spirit, there came a great unifying life force that flowed in and through all things-the flowers of the plains, blowing winds, rocks, trees, birds, animals- and was the same force that had been breathed into the first man.”
native americans view of their environment
Native Americans’ view of their Environment
  • Strong connection to nature and their surroundings.
  • Each part of Nature had its own spirit.
  • Each person had to maintain a balance with these spirits.
  • They did not believe that land could be owned as property, but felt strong ties to their homeland-the area they lived most of the year.
8 8 2013
  • Objective: We CAN compare and contrast characteristics of major native American civilizations of the Americas.
  • Take out the activity we did yesterday.
  • Turn to pages 4-5 in your textbook.
  • Interpret each map. What new information can you add to your chart?
native americans on the northwest coast
Native Americans on the Northwest Coast
  • Geographical Information:
    • Extends from southern Oregon into Canada
    • Physical Characteristics: Thick forests of fir, spruce, and cedar trees; Mountains;
    • Climate: Winters along the coast are cold but not icy; Summers are cool; heavy rainfall
northwest coast food
Northwest Coast: Food
  • The Sea was the main food source; clams, shellfish, seaweed, seals, sea lions, whales.
  • The forests provided deer, moose, bear, elk, beaver, and mountain goat.
  • ** Salmon in the Summer!!
northwest coast
Northwest Coast
  • Weapons: Harpoons and spears to catch seals & fences to catch salmon
  • Tools: Wedges, stone-headed sledgehammers, bone drills, stone chisels, stone knives,
  • They used these sledgehammers to cut long thin boards for houses
  • Used bark to make baskets, mats, and rope
  • Crafts: Decorative shell buttons, animal masks, wooden bowls
native americans of california
Native Americans of California
  • Location: Stretches from Southern Oregon to Baja California (lower)
  • Climate: Winter rain; hot/dry summers
  • Physical Characteristics: Coasts, valleys, & deserts
  • Food:
    • Coastal: SALMON
    • Southern: Shellfish
    • Inland: Deer, Rabbit, Ducks
    • Gatherers: Berries, roots, pine nuts, acorns*
california continued
California Continued..
  • Clothing: Grass skirts/aprons; animal hides,
  • Housing: Simple homes made out of deer antlers, and bark, shaped into a large cone. In marshy areas they wove mats of reeds to drape over a cone shaped framework of poles.
  • Crafts: Made baskets, sifters, & fish traps out of woven plant materials. They decorated their work with clamshells and bird feathers.
great basin
Great Basin
  • Location: Low area between the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains.
  • Physical Features: The land is mostly desert because the mountains block the rain; low grasses, sagebrush
  • Climate: They made temporary shelters of Willow poles shaped into cones and covered with brush or reeds. They experienced extreme heat in the summer and extreme cold in the winter.
  • Food: The Native Americans followed their food source.