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Dietary Guidelines for Americans

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  1. Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  2. What are the 2005 Dietary Guidelines? • Provides science-based advice to promote health and reduce risk of major chronic diseases • Encourages most Americans to: • Eat fewer calories • Be more physically active • Eat a healthful diet by making wiser food choices • Prepare and handle foods to reduce risk of foodborne illness Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  3. 41 key recommendations 23 for general public 18 for special populations 10 chapters Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Weight Management Physical Activity Food Groups To Encourage Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcoholic Beverages Food Safety 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  4. Evolution of USDA’s Food Guidance 1950s-1960s 1940s 1916 Food for Young Children 2005 1992 1970s Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  5. Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  6. 1.Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs • Weight Management • Physical Activity • Food Groups To Encourage • Fats • Carbohydrates • Sodium and Potassium • Alcoholic Beverages • Food Safety Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  7. 1. Background and purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans • Document for policymakers, healthcare providers, nutritionists, and nutrition educators • Jointly developed by HHS/USDA every 5 years • Recommendations for an overall pattern of eating that can be adopted by the general public • Applicable to food preferences of different racial/ethnic groups, vegetarians, and other groups Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  8. 1. Background and purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans • Recommendations for Americans over 2 years of age • Emphasizes: • Eating a healthful diet to optimize growth and reduce risks of chronic diseases • Getting exercise • Meeting nutrient intakes (Dietary Reference Intakes) set by Institute of Medicine • Does not emphasize dietary supplements Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  9. 1.Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs • Weight Management • Physical Activity • Food Groups To Encourage • Fats • Carbohydrates • Sodium and Potassium • Alcoholic Beverages • Food Safety Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  10. 2. Adequate nutrients within calorie needs • Eat a variety of nutrient-dense foods from different food groups (DASH eating plan) • Limit: Saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, alcohol • Key recommendations • People over 50 yrs: Vitamin B-12 • Pregnancy: Iron, folic acid • Older and dark-skinned people: Vitamin D Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  11. 2. Adequate nutrients within calorie needsWhat YOU can do • Eat breakfast each day based on the Dietary Guidelines eating pattern • Fortified cereals source of nutrients and whole grains • Encourages milk and fruit • Helps raise metabolism and curb appetite to control weight • Helps you perform better at school or work • Read food labels when shopping at the grocery store Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  12. Use labels to make quick, informed choices Check Calories Sample label for macaroni and cheese Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005 http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/foodlab.html

  13. 1.Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs • Weight Management • Physical Activity • Food Groups To Encourage • Fats • Carbohydrates • Sodium and Potassium • Alcoholic Beverages • Food Safety Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  14. 3. Weight management • Obesity linked to: • Early death • High blood pressure • Type 2 diabetes • Heart disease, stroke, lipid disorders • Gall bladder disease • Gout • Bone and muscle problems: osteoarthritis, hip disorder • Pulmonary and respiratory problems: asthma, sleep apnea • Abnormal growth acceleration: early puberty, menarche • Psychological and social problems: depression • Certain cancers (endometrial, breast, colon) Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  15. 3. Weight management • Aim for slow, steady weight loss • Eat fewer calories • Maintain adequate nutrient intake • Increase physical activity • For obese adults, a modest weight loss (10 lbs) has health benefits • Eat 100 fewer calories/day lose 10 pounds/yr • Eat less added sugars, fats, alcohol, which provide calories but few or no essential nutrients Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  16. 1991 Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS: 1991, 1996, 2003 1996 2003 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25% Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005 BMI 30, or about 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” person

  17. 3. Weight managementWhat YOU can do • When dining out, choose smaller portions of main meals and beverages, and don’t purchase “super-size” items • Buy “regular” or “small” size items • Don’t be tempted by better deals • Share an entrée, take some home • Choose low fat foods when eating out • Lower fat terms: grilled, broiled, baked, steamed poached • Higher-fat terms: buttered, buttery, fried, breaded, creamed, in cream sauce, with gravy, au gratin, scalloped, hollandaise, pastry Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  18. 3. Weight management • Body mass index (BMI) is more accurate approximation of body fat than weight alone • Overestimates fat in muscular people • Underestimates fat in people who lost muscle • Calculation: Weight (lbs) X 703 Height (in) • BMI ranges • Healthy 19-24 • Overweight 25-29 • Obese 30 and above • BMI calculator: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/bmi/calc-bmi.htm http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/bmicalc.htm 2 Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  19. 1.Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs • Weight Management • Physical Activity • Food Groups To Encourage • Fats • Carbohydrates • Sodium and Potassium • Alcoholic Beverages • Food Safety Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  20. 4. Physical activity • Physical activity reduces risk or helps manage • Overweight and obesity • Heart disease • Stroke • High blood pressure • Type 2 diabetes • Osteoporosis • Colon cancer • Mild to moderate depression/anxiety • Early mortality • American adults and children do not get enough exercise for a variety of reasons Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  21. 4. Physical activity • 3 components to physical fitness • Cardiovascular conditioning: Walking, jogging, aerobic activities • Stretching exercises for flexibility: Yoga • Resistance exercises or calisthenics for muscle strength and endurance: Weight lifting Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  22. 4. Physical activity • Adults • 30 min. of moderate activity, above usual activity, on most days: Reduce chronic disease risk • 60 min. of moderate to vigorous activity on most days while balancing caloric intake: Manage body weight and prevent weight gain • 60-90 min. of moderate activity daily, while balancing caloric intake: Sustain weight loss • Children & adolescents: 60 min. of activity on most, preferably all, days of the week • Pregnant and breastfeeding women, older adults: OK to exercise Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  23. 4. Physical activityWhat YOU can do • Make small changes to increase your daily level of physical activity • Climbing stairs, dancing, choosing distant parking places • Set aside a time each day for exercise • Try to balance the calories in your food with the amount of activity you do in order to maintain a healthy weight • Replace TV watching with activities requiring more movement • Don’t reward yourself with food Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  24. 1.Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs • Weight Management • Physical Activity • Food Groups To Encourage • Fats • Carbohydrates • Sodium and Potassium • Alcoholic Beverages • Food Safety Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  25. 9 9 Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  26. 5. Food groups to encourage. Fruits and Vegetables • 4 ½ cups (9 servings) of fruits and vegetables/day (for 2000 calorie diet) • Recommendation not changed, but expressed in cups instead of servings • Contain vitamin A (carotenoids), vitamin C, fiber, potassium, magnesium, other phytonutrients Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  27. 5. Food groups to encourage. Vegetables • 2 ½ cups vegetables/day (for 2000 calorie diet) • Choose fresh, frozen, and canned • Minimize added butter and salt • Different vegetables are rich in different nutrients Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  28. Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  29. Vary your veggies Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  30. Vary your veggies • Eat 2-1/2 cups of vegetables per day for a 2,000 calorie diet • Select from all 5 vegetable SUBGROUPS several times a week Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  31. Subgroup 1: Dark green vegetables • Broccoli • Spinach • Most greens — spinach, collards, turnip greens, kale, beet, mustard greens • Green leaf and romaine lettuce Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  32. Subgroup 2. Orange vegetables • Carrots • Sweet potatoes • Winter squash • Pumpkin Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  33. Subgroup 3. Legumes • Dry beans and peas such as • Chickpeas • Pinto beans • Kidney beans • Black beans • Garbanzo beans • Soybeans • Split peas • Lentils The USDA Food Guide includes dry beans, peas and soybeans in the meats and beans group as well as the vegetable group; however count them only in one group. Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  34. Subgroup 4. Starchy vegetables • White potatoes • Corn • Green peas Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  35. Subgroup 5. Other vegetables • Tomatoes • Cabbage • Celery • Cucumber • Lettuce • Onions • Peppers • Green beans • Cauliflower • Mushrooms • Summer squash Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  36. “For optimum health, scientists say eat a rainbow of colors. Your plate should look like a box of Crayolas.” ~Janice M. Horowitz,TIME, January 12, 2002 Eat a rainbow Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  37. 5. Food groups to encourage. Fruits • 2 cups fruits/day (for 2000 calorie diet) • Whole fruits (fresh, frozen, canned, dried) have more fiber than fruit juice • Orange juice is good source of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium and vitamin D if fortified Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  38. 5. Food groups to encourage. Dairy • Adults and children 9 years and older: 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products • Children 2-8 years: 2 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products • Yogurt, lactose-free milk (or lactase), cheese • Non-dairy eaters should choose alternative sources of calcium (fortified cereals & juice, seafood, soy foods) Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  39. 5. Food groups to encourage. Whole grains • Eat 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole grain products per day • Half your grains should come from whole grains Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  40. What is a whole grain? • Foods made with the entire grain seed (kernel). If kernel has been cracked, crushed, or flaked, it must retain nearly the same relative proportions of bran, germ, and endosperm as the original grain • FDA health claim: Whole grain food must contain 51% or more whole grain ingredients by weight per reference amount and be low in fat and cholesterol Bran Endosperm Germ Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  41. Whole grains contain more than just fiber http://www.bellinstitute.com/nutrition/index.htm Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  42. 5. Health benefits of whole grains • Coronary heart disease • Type 2 diabetes • Colon cancer • Weight control Toasted corn and bulgur salad http://www.wheatfoods.org/ Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  43. Finding whole grains when shopping • Check ingredient list for a “whole” grain • Don’t rely on color Good Source A half serving (8 g) of whole grain Excellent Source A full serving (16 g) of whole grain 100%/Excellent A full serving (16 g) & all grains are whole Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  44. What counts as an “ounce equivalent” serving of a whole grain food? • 1 slice whole wheat bread (16 g of whole grain) • ½ cup of cooked cereal, rice, pasta • 1 cup dry flake cereal • ¼ cup dense cereal (granola) • 1 ½ cups puffed cereals Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  45. Amaranth Barley Brown rice Buckwheat Bulgur Emmer Farro Grano Kamut Millet Oatmeal and whole oats Popcorn Quinoa Sorghum Spelt Teff Triticale Whole corn Whole-grain pasta Whole rye Whole wheat Whole-wheat couscous Wild rice Whole grains are consumed in the U.S. as a single food or an ingredient in a product Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  46. 5. Food groups to encourageWhat YOU can do • Eat fruits and vegetables for a total of at least four and one-half cups (9 servings) each day • Pack fruits and vegetables as snack during the day • Choose low-fat or fat-free milk, yogurt, and other dairy products • Have vanilla yogurt with fruit instead of ice cream for dessert • Try to eat at least half of your grains as whole grain foods, or about 3 ounce-equivalents/day • Try a new whole grain food each month Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  47. 1.Background and Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans • Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs • Weight Management • Physical Activity • Food Groups To Encourage • Fats • Carbohydrates • Sodium and Potassium • Alcoholic Beverages • Food Safety Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  48. 6. Fats • Total fat: 20-35% of daily calories • Children 2-3 years: 30-35% of calories • Children and adolescents 4-18 yrs: 25-35 of calories • Mainly poly- and monounsaturated fats: fish, nuts, vegetable oils • Saturated fat: Less than 10% of daily calories • Cholesterol: Less than 300 mg/day • Trans fats: As low as possible Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  49. FatsWhat YOU Can Do • Choose “healthy fats” such as olive oil and canola oil • Use canola margarine and cook with canola oil • Use olive oil salad dressings • Avoid “unhealthy fats” such as saturated and trans fat • Check nutrition labels and ingredient lists • Choose low-fat dairy products and lean meats • Eat at least 2 seafood meals each week • Source of omega-3 fats Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005

  50. Where do Trans fats come from? Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 2005