WORLD WAR I World War I, Great War, War to End All Wars, War to make the world safe for democracy
UNDERLYING CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • 1. The Rise of Nationalism • a) feeling of unity among those who share a common language, history, or culture (led to fragmentation of Austrian-Hungarian Empire but also led to the unification of Germany and Italy; • b) belief that loyalty to one's nation comes before any other loyalty (an exaggerated form of patriotism) • c)Led to strife because the goals of one nation eventually came into conflict with those of another. National pride was quick to take offense.
UNDERLYING CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • 2. The Rise of Militarism: Nationalism supported the use of force to gain a country's goals. Germany began building its navy to challenge the supremacy of the British on the seas. • 1906 Great Britain launched the Dreadnought, the first modern battleship.
UNDERLYING CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • 3. Imperialism: resulted in competition among European nations for colonies. Imperialism and the Balance of Power
UNDERLYING CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • 4. System of Military Alliances: ''entangling alliance's" • a. Triple Alliance (1882): Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy • b. Triple Entente (1907)1 Great Britain, France, Russia
UNDERLYING CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • Intellectual context • No memory of war – • last major war in Europe was the brief Franco-Prussian War in 1870 • 100 years since the Napoleonic Wars • Social Darwinism and irrational philosophy often promoted war as a method of progress and human advance • Predictions declare that war will be brief and decisive due to technological advancements
UNDERLYING CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I • Family rivalries • George V of England • William II of Germany • Nicholas II of Russia
IMMEDIATE CAUSE OF THE WAR • 1. June 28, 1914: Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, and his wife, Sophia, were killed by a 16 year old Serbian student, Gavrilo Princip, who was a member of the Black Hand, a terrorist group. They had been on a good will visit to build support for a Triple Monarchy as a way to quell ethnic tensions.
IMMEDIATE CAUSE OF THE WAR • 2. Austria believed the government of Serbia was behind the assassination • 3. This occurred in Sarajevo in Bosnia which recently became a province of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It was part of the Balkans which was known as the Powderkeg of Europe. Austria believed the government of Serbia was behind the assassination
Why was the Balkans a “Powderkeg”? • In the late 19th century, Slavic nationalism grew. Wanted independence for all southern Slavs – no Austria-Hungary; no Ottoman Empire • Originally looked to Russia as protector of all Slavs. After the Berlin Congress, Russia lost interest in Balkans and looked to Asia to fulfill its imperialist ambitions. Revolution of 1905 and loss in Russo-Japanese War further weakened Russia. Lack of active Russian involvement in the Balkans left southern Slavs to fend for themselves. Serbs tried to take advantage of the power vacuum.
Why was the Balkans a “Powderkeg”? • Complication: Austria, Russia, and Serbs were concerned about the Young Turk movement in the Ottoman Empire which sought to regain Turkish control of the Balkans. • 1908 Austria and Russia meet to support each other in the region. Call for international conference • Austria would annex Bosnia-Herzegovina; Russia would demand open access to the straits Ahmet Riza
Why was the Balkans a “Powderkeg”? • First Balkan Crisis: • 1908 Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina before any conference. Angers Russia and Serbia • Results: • Austria moves into Bosnia-Herzegovina • International support for Russia’s demand for open access to the straits breaks down (no British or French support) • Bulgaria gains independence from Ottoman Empire • Unification of Greece and Crete • Slavic nationalism increases, begin to form secret nationalist groups – (Black Hand – 1911)
Why was the Balkans a “Powderkeg”? • Second Balkan Crisis • 1911 Italy declares war on Ottoman Empire. Italy wins forcing Ottoman Empire to cede Libya and a few islands to Italy. Further weakens Ottoman Empire’s stature in the region
Why was the Balkans a “Powderkeg”? • First Balkan War: 1912 Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria and Montenegro) declares war on Ottoman Empire and take Macedonia. • Victors squabble over spoils of war • Serbia resentment of Bulgaria’s designs on Macedonia • Serbia refused control of Albania at peace conference by Austria, Italy and Germany; Russia humiliated again • Leads to Second Balkan War
Why was the Balkans a “Powderkeg”? • Second Balkan War: 1913 Bulgaria faced off with the other Balkan nations (Greece, Serbia, Romania) and the Ottoman Empire • Bulgaria was easily defeated • Results: • Squabbling among victors (again) • Austria gets international support to keep control of Albania from Serbia (still landlocked) • Heightened animosity between Serbia and Austria • Russia, humiliated again, convinced they must save face in next crisis
BEGINNING OF THE WORLD WAR I • After the assassination of Franz Ferdinand: • A. Austria looked to Germany for support. Kaiser Wilhelm gave Austria (his only reliable ally) a “blank check” to settle the ethnic issue permanently. • Serbia looked to its ally Russia. Russia looked to France for support.
BEGINNING OF THE WORLD WAR I • B. Austria declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. Russia began to mobilize. Germany declared war on Russia August 1, 1914 and against France on August 3, 1914. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and in response the British declared war on Germany on August 4, 1914.
BEGINNING OF THE WORLD WAR I • C. August 4, 1914 Wilson declares American neutrality