Chapter 18 Objectives • Understand the forces shaping our economy and how they effect the types of jobs available. • Explain the skills needed to manage your career. • Explain how to learn about occupations, organizations, and job openings. • Write a solid resume.
Chapter 18 Objectives • Use appropriate behavior and communication during a job interview. • Identify ways to handle job search stress and respond to job offers. • Explain strategies for starting and ending jobs.
Forces Shaping the Workforce • Demographics • Diversity • Working parents • Older workers • Technological advances • Take away routine tasks once done by people • Require highly skilled workers • Globalization • Relocation of jobs • Requires international communication and interaction
Managing Your Career • Pursue skills and knowledge; do not wait for your employer to train you. • Recognize trends in job growth and decline. • Adjust to new work environments and systems. • Develop job-seeking skills. • Identify your skills and values. • Identify your personal strengths and potential obstacles.
Learning about Careers • Online resources • School career-counseling centers • Local libraries • Department of Labor’s CareerOneStop web site • Occupational Outlook Handbook (online or print version) • Informational interviews
Learning about Organizations • Local business directories • Local Chamber of Commerce • Company annual reports • Online and library resources • Hoover’s • Forbes • Standard and Poor’s • Thomas Register • Encyclopedia of Associations
Learning about Job Openings • Networking • Direct approach • The Internet • Newspaper want ads • Job hot lines • Employment agencies • Temporary agencies • Job fairs • Summer jobs/internships • School placement office
Evaluating Prospects Identify and compare job parameters: • Salary • Location • Hours • People/groups • Outdoors/indoors • Size of company • Dress code/culture • Supervision/flexibility
Resume Writing Tips • Limit the resume to one page unless you have extensive experience. • Target your resume to specific employers. • Do not enclose a photo or provide personal information. • List activities and hobbies that are relevant to the position. • Be specific about your accomplishments. • Expect to complete several revisions, and enlist someone to help you proofread. • Make your resume pleasing to the eye, but keep it simple. • Print the resume on 8 ½ x 11” white/off-white, high-grade paper.
Making Your Resume Text-Based/Scannable • Use popular industry key words throughout the resume and especially in a well-worded summary section. • Print in highest quality, “letter quality” mode. • Avoid formatting, such as bold, italics, bullets, lines, tables, and shading. • Use Arial or Times Roman font in 11- or 12-point size. • Do not fold, crease, or staple. • Use only white or off-white, 8 ½ x 11” paper.
Resume Formats • Chronological resume • Identifies work experience in chronological order; most recent experience first • Good for those who have continuous work history with progressively more responsible positions • Functional resume • Emphasizes skills that can be transferred to other areas • Good for reentering the job market, changing careers, little work experience, frequent job changes • Hybrid or combination resume • Incorporates chronological and functional forms
References • Individuals who can vouch for your work abilities and personal qualities • Former bosses and coworkers • Teachers • Fellow professionals • Acquaintances who know you socially • Do not list references on your resume. • Make a separate reference list and be ready to provide it when requested. • Do not list references without their permission.
Filling Out a Job Application • Follow directions carefully. • Answer all questions. • Write neatly in blank ink or word process. • Make sure answers are correct and well phrased. • Proofread carefully for errors. • Use complete and accurate addresses in the references section. • Be sure the form is attractive, neat, and clean. • Sign and date the application.
Preparing for an Interview • Prepare thoughtful, honest answers to common interview questions. • Prepare to ask questions about the company and position. • Verify the time, date, location, and name of interviewer. • Research as much information about the company as possible. • Be sure that you know how to get to the location. • Be prepared for different interview forms. • Know your salary requirements and local salary ranges. • Practice with a friend, and get honest feedback. • Videotape yourself and evaluate your performance.
Tips for Successful Interviews • Be on your best behavior from the time you enter company property. • Arrive a few minutes early. • Dress conservatively and appropriately for the position. • Use proper hygiene and grooming. • Do not smoke or chew gum. • Smile and be pleasant to everyone you meet. • Use eye contact but do not stare. • Make a good impression during the first moments. • Explain how your qualifications make you the best candidate for the position.
Tips for Successful Interviews • Never speak badly about a previous employer. • Explain any negative work experiences in an unemotional manner, emphasizing what you learned and how you improved. • Ask several questions about the job or company. • Do not bring up salary first. If asked about salary requirements, discuss appropriate ranges. • Remain enthusiastic even if you feel the position isn’t for you. • Ask for the job and ask when a decision will be made. • Be prepared to take pre-employment tests.
Inappropriate Interview Questions • Questions related to the following topics are inappropriate in an interview: • Age Marital status • Children Criminal record • National origin Religion • Disability • These usually indicate an inexperienced interviewer but may indicate discrimination. • Don’t refuse to answer questions. Work to draw the conversation back to your skills and experience, or ask how the information is relevant to the position.
Follow-Up after an Interview • Immediately after an interview, write a thank-you note to each of the individuals with whom you interviewed. • Express thanks/appreciation. • Emphasize your interest and briefly re-state your qualifications. • Ask for the job. • Make a good impression with a neat, error-free letter. • Keep interview progress charts to help you measure your job search progress.
Handling Rejection • Join (or create) a job search club or group. • Meet regularly for support and practice interviews. • Discuss job search problems with family and friends. • Approach job seeking as a job. Work at least six hours a day on your job search. • Keep a positive attitude. “Nothing ventured, nothing gained.”
Handling Job Offers • If the job, location, and organization are right, accept the job immediately. • If you want to think about a job, ask for 24 to 48 hours to allow for a decision. Set a time when you will respond with your decision. • If you decline a job offer, do so professionally. Never cite personal reasons. • Follow up a declined job offer with a thank-you letter.
Starting off Right in a New Job • Show a positive attitude and project a positive, competent image. • Be on time for work. Follow rules and be dependable. • Accept constructive criticism and show appreciation for support and feedback. • Show initiative. Exceed your employer’s expectations.
Starting off Right in a New Job • Try to solve problems before asking for help. Admit mistakes and learn from them. • Be a team player and be willing to help. Treat others with respect and courtesy. • Avoid gossip and negativity. • Volunteer for projects and committees if your work is completed. • Don’t try to change things right away. Focus on listening and learning.
Warning Signs of Job Termination • You hate your job and spend more time thinking about what you will do after work. • You lose your influence. Your ideas and opinions are not heard/respected. • You begin to hear of layoffs due to a recession or takeover. • You’re not productive, miss objectives, or confuse priorities. • You fail to adapt and learn new skills and practices.
When You Leave a Job • Finding another job is easier while you still have one, but never use company time to conduct a job search. (Use lunch breaks, evenings, and weekends). • Give two weeks’ notice. • Never burn your bridges. • Be aware of unemployment laws and benefits. • Ask for a reference if it is positive.
If You Are Terminated • Have a calm conversation with your supervisor and clarify the reasons. • Do not make things worse by being aggressive or emotional. • Don’t focus on unfair treatment. • Analyze objectively what you learned from the experience. • Reestablish and rebuild your support network. • Review and update your job search materials. • Use the term “laid off” rather than “fired” when asked about past experience. • Remember that many people who have lost their jobs in the past have gone on to enjoy successful careers.
Making a Successful Job/Career Change • Continue your education and stay on the cutting edge. • Before changing, determine if your discontent is based on the position or the career. • Avoid quitting until you have secured another job. • Always resign professionally and courteously. • When relocating, consider the impact on loved ones, values/interests, costs, career goals. • Research a new community thoroughly before moving and build a support network immediately on arriving.
Key Terms • Functional resume • Hybrid/combination resume • Reference • Interview • Demographics • Globalization • Job-seeking skills • Networking • Resume • Chronological resume