Course Objectives:- On completion of training, students will have an understanding of their legal obligations on the safe loading of vehicle
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Introduction From 10th September 2009, as well as a driving licence, most lorry drivers who drive professionally will have to hold a Certificate of Professional Competence (CPC), which is renewable every 5 years. The Driver CPC has been introduced to improve the knowledge and skills of lorry drivers. The Drivers CPC requirement does not apply to drivers of:- • Vehicles with a maximum authorised speed not exceeding 45 kph. • Vehicles undergoing road tests for technical development, repair or maintenance purposes, nor to….
Exemptions • Vehicles undergoing road tests for technical purposes. • Vehicles used in states of emergency orrescue missions. • Vehicles used by, or under control of thearmed forces, civil defence and the fire service. • Vehicles with a maximum authorised speed not exceeding 45 kph. • Vehicles used for non-commercial carriage of passengers or goods. • Vehicles used exclusively for driver training. • Vehicles carrying material or equipment to be used by the driver in the course of his or her work.
Introduction Periodic Training:- • 35 hours of periodic training must takeplace in 5-yearly cycles consistent withthe CPC renewal. New Drivers:- • Must have undertaken periodic trainingwithin 5 years of obtaining their initialCPC. Existing Drivers:- • Must have undertaken periodic training by 10th September 2014.
Overloaded Vehicles Fines Road Traffic Act 1988 • Requires vehicle users to ensure that the vehicle is not overloaded • Both the driver and operator are liable • A fine of up to £5,000 per offence • If dangerously overload the driver may be charges with Dangerous Driving, a maximum penalty of two years in prison • If someone is killed, driver and operator may face jail for Manslaughter or Death by Dangerous Driving • Loss of LGV entitlement • No job
HSE Guidance on Safe Loading and Unloading Loading and unloading areas should be: • Clear of other traffic, pedestrians and people not involved • Clear of overhead electric cables • Level, to maintain stability, trailers parked on firm level ground • Loads should be spread as evenly as possible • Loads should be secured • Safety equipment should be considered • Ensure the vehicle and trailer have their brakes applied • Harness system supplied if working at heights • A safe place for the driver to wait if not involved in the loading • Keep away people who are not involved
HSE Guidance on Safe Loading and Unloading • Vehicles must not be overloaded • Check the deck area before loading to make sure its safe and free from debris • Loading should allow for safe unloading • Loads must be suitably packaged • Tailgates and sideboards must be closed when possible • If more than one company is involved, they should agree procedures in advance
Safe Loading • Do check the weight of the load to be carried • Do make sure that the vehicle is capable of carrying the size and type of load • Do remember that the size, type and weight of the load will affect the handling of the vehicle • Do check the load before moving off and whenever items are added or removed • Do remember that loads can settle and shift during a journey causing lashings to slacken • Do check the load at regular intervals and after heavy braking or sudden change of direction • Do make sure safe systems of work are devised and followed when loading and unloading
Safe Loading • Do Not overload the vehicle or axles • Do Not load the vehicle too high • Do Not reduce the load on the steering axles by positioning the load too far back • Do Not move the vehicle with any part of the load not restrained • Do Not climb onto the vehicle or its load unless it’s essential and there is a safe means of access • Do Not take any chances, there are better things to do than have an accident
TERMINOLOGY • What is? • Unladen Weight • Kerbside Weight • Gross Vehicle Weight • Payload
TERMINOLOGY Unladen Weight (ULW):- The weight of the vehicle or trailer including fixed bodywork, less the weight of any load, crew, fuel, water, loose tools, equipment & batteries, where they are involved in propelling the vehicle
TERMINOLOGY Kerbside Weight ( TARE ):- The unladen weight, plus fuel, water, loose tools & equipment (still excludes weight of load and crew ) The pay load is calculated by subtracting the kerbside weight from the gross vehicle weight The kerbside weight may also be referred to as the TARE weight for examination purposes
TERMINOLOGY Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW):- The maximum weight that the vehicle or trailer and its load may legally transfer to the road Various terms mean the same thing, depending which regulations you are reading: • gross plated weight • gross permitted weight • gross permitted mass • maximum gross weight • maximum authorised mass This information will be found on the Ministry Plate ( VTG 6 ), which is fixed to the vehicle or trailer
Manufacturer’s Plate All modern vehicles (and all trailers over 3500 kgs.gvw) will have a Manufacturer’s Plate showing: Grossdesignweight Grossdesigntrainweight Max. designaxleweights
VTG6 • Goods vehicles over 3500 kgs. gvw, trailers over 020 kgs. ulw and either part of any artic. should have a ‘Ministry’ plate known as a VTG 6 showing: Gross vehicle weight Gross train weight Max. permitted axle weights Remember – these are the legal limits for UK journeys!
Calculation of Payload • The driver must be able to calculate the maximum load that can be carried on a vehicle at any particular time. This is called the ‘payload’ • Calculating the Payload:- • Gross vehicle weight minus kerbside weight ( TARE ) equals payload • The payload will vary depending on the kerbside weight( TARE ), which may alter depending on the amount of fuel, loose tools and equipment carried
Calculation of Payload • Calculating payload:- • Gross weight 44,000kgs • Kerbside weight ( TARE ) 14,500kgs • Payload 29,500kgs • Gross weight 18,000kgs • Kerbside weight ( TARE ) 6,500kgs • Payload 11,500kgs
ForcesAffectingVehiclesinMotion Forces at Work on a Vehicle:- • Momentum • Gravity • Centrifugal Force
Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Momentum:- Is the tendency of the vehicle/load to continue in a straight line. Momentum depends upon the weight and speed of the vehicle. • If the vehicle stops the load will continue moving forward. The higher the speed the greater the momentum • When accelerating away from a stationary state, the load will want to remain where it is • When driving a tanker where there are no baffles fitted, the load may surge forward when braking.
Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Momentum:- .
Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Centrifugal Force:- • When the vehicle takes a bend the load will want to keep going in a straight line • If a loaded vehicle takes a bend at too high a speed, the centrifugal force acting on it may cause the load to be unstable and fall from the vehicle • At low speed this will be overcome by the tyres gripping on the road surface • With a live load (liquid) the centrifugal force may be increased by the load surge at corners and roundabouts • The centrifugal force may be increased at roundabouts as there may be a pendulum effect on the load
Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Centrifugal Force:-
Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Centre of Gravity:- • The vehicle’s centre of gravity is the point through which all its weight acts • The centre of gravity should be kept as low as possible, along a line running centrally down the length of the vehicle/load • The higher the centre of gravity, the less stable the vehicle and load will be. • When loading a vehicle the centre of gravity must be kept as low as possible. • The heavy load on the bottom and the lighter load on the top
Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Centre of Gravity:- • If carrying heavy engineering plant, the best type of vehicle would be a low loader. • Many semi-trailers are fitted with two decks to increase the number of pallets carried. • If the lower deck only were unloaded, then the centre of gravity would be higher, affecting the stability of the vehicle • The centre of gravity can be a problem for car transport drivers carrying out multi-drops, as the load is removed from the lower deck first • The driver may have to re-arrange the load
Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Centre of Gravity:-
Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion • High winds can cause problems for high-sided vehicles • Rain, ice, snow can affect the stopping distance • On icy roads the stopping distance can be increased by up to10 times normal stopping distance • The correct use of the accelerator and brakes are important to avoid locking the wheels
Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Route Selection:- • Drivers of high sided vehicles should avoid viaducts and bridges in high winds • The route chosen may depend upon the load being carried • With high loads be aware of low bridges and tunnels • When carrying dangerous goods there are restrictions on the use of some roads/tunnels • When carrying abnormal loads there are restrictions on the use of certain bridges. • The operator may have to notify the highways and bridges authorities before movement
Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion • Liquid Loads • With a liquid load, when accelerating, braking or turning there is a problem with the load surging • When the driver brakes the load will surge forward • When the driver accelerates the load will remain where it is • When the driver takes a bend the load will tend to keep going in a straight line • This can lead to a rollover situation
Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion • Liquid Loads • Some tankers are fitted with compartments or baffles to prevent the surge of the load • Baffles cannot so easily be used in tankers carrying food products, because of problems of contamination and cleaning • When driving, avoid sudden braking and entering corners too fast.
Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion • Roll Over • Roll over can occur if a bend is taken too fast, or when leaving a roundabout. • This is more likely to happen with a live load (liquid load) • As you enter the roundabout the liquid will move in the tank • As you leave the roundabout the movement of the load will increase in the opposite direction producing a pendulum effect • This can result in a roll over situation.
Gear Selection for Load and Road Conditions • Gear Selection:- • In normal driving, when loaded, drivers should use the lower/lowest gear for moving off. • This reduces clutch wear ( no clutch slip ) • Loss of traction can result from over-hard acceleration. • When driving down hill, a lower gear should be selected to allow the engine to slow the vehicle down. • A brake retarder can also be used.
Load Distribution When securing a load the driver needs to consider:- • The load being carried • Suitability of the vehicle • Stability of the load • Type of restraints to be used • Protecting the load from the weather • Prevention of theft of the load • Ease of delivery of the load
LoadDistribution Load must not endanger any road user, so the driver must • Check that the load is securely stowed • Check that operating within the vehicle’s weight limits ( axle, gross and train ) • Check that the load is within the size limits of the vehicle • Check that ropes/chains/straps are secured • Check that sheets are fastened down • Check that container locks are secured • Check that doors, tailgates are fastened • Check that hatches on tankers are closed
LoadDistribution Code of Practice on Safe Loading of Vehicles • Is produced by DfT • Gives the best practice for safe loading of goods vehicles • Gives the responsibilities of both the operator and driver • Remember, there is no defence for an insecure load • Both the operator and driver may be prosecuted
Load Distribution • All loads must be secured on a vehicle • The equipment required will depend upon the nature of the load • It must be suitable to ensure that the load does not move under normal driving conditions • It must protect the load from adverse weather conditions
Load Distribution • Choice of Vehicle:- • The Operator is responsible for providing a suitable vehicle & securing equipment and ensuring driver and loading staff are competent • Drivers have a duty to check and ensure that the load is adequately secured at all times, not just at the start of the journey • The design and construction of the vehicle should be suitable for the load being carried • When selecting the vehicle its wheelbase, body length and overhang should be considered
Load Distribution • Choice of Vehicle:- • Prevent the vehicle from grounding on level crossings, etc (applies to low loaders at level crossings ) • Extra requirements for dangerous goods • Check the height of bodywork (sides) when carrying small loose items • Sheets may be required for tipper vehicles • The maximum permitted gross, axle and train weights must not be exceeded • Centre of gravity kept as low as possible to achieve maximum stability
Load Distribution • Arrangement of Loads:- • Check that the loading platform, bodywork and anchor points are suitable • Positioning the load so that the axle weights will not be exceeded • When part of the load is removed it will reduce the gross weight, but the change in weight distribution may cause individual axles to become overloaded(diminishing load effect ) • The driver may have to re-distribute the load
P x C W LoadDistribution • A vehicle loaded within its gross weight limit can still exceed axle weight limits due to nature and position of the load • In the above example, • 10 x 2 divided by 5 gives 4 tonnes through the front axle, or • 10 x 3 divided by 5 gives 6 tonnes through the rear axle P=Payload C=Centre of load to axle W=Wheelbase
LoadDistribution Correct load distribution is vital: it’s easy to overload an axle, even when within the vehicle gross weight. This is particularly important with multi-drop loads – it may be necessary to re-distribute the remaining load If for example 5 tons is placed centrally over the rear axle of this vehicle, then the axle loading is 5 tons 5T
LoadDistribution Correct load distribution is vital: it’s easy to overload an axle, even when within the vehicle gross weight. This is particularly important with multi-drop loads – it may be necessary to re-distribute the remaining load then when the load is moved 1 metre further forward, the axle loading becomes 4T 1T if the wheelbase is 5 metres