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e- Management. e- Management. Emre ŞAHİN Tuncer BAŞARAN Erkan GÖKBULUT Kaan MAMİKOĞLU. Today’s Topics :. What is Management ? What is e- Management ? E- Management Principles Attributes of e- Management e- Management Design Strategies Applications of e- Management. Management.
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e-Management • Emre ŞAHİN • Tuncer BAŞARAN • Erkan GÖKBULUT • Kaan MAMİKOĞLU
Today’sTopics : • What is Management? • What is e-Management? • E-ManagementPrinciples • Attributes of e-Management • e-ManagementDesignStrategies • Applications of e-Management
Management Management in businessandorganizations is thefunctionthatcoordinatestheefforts of peopletoaccomplishgoalsandobjectivesusingavailableresourcesefficientlyandeffectively. Managementcomprisesplanning, organizing, staffing, leadingordirecting, andcontrolling an organizationorinitiativetoaccomplish a goal. Resourcingencompassesthedeploymentandmanipulation of humanresources, financialresources, technologicalresources, andnaturalresources. Management is also an academicdiscipline, a socialsciencewhoseobject of study is thesocialorganization.
WhyManagement is Crucial? • It helps in Achieving Group Goals - It arranges the factors of production, assembles and organizes the resources, integrates the resources in effective manner to achieve goals. It directs group efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. By defining objective of organization clearly there would be no wastage of time, money and effort. Management converts disorganized resources of men, machines, money etc. into useful enterprise. These resources are coordinated, directed and controlled in such a manner that enterprise work towards attainment of goals. • Optimum Utilization of Resources Management utilizes all the physical & human resources productively. This leads to efficacy in management. Management provides maximum utilization of scarce resources by selecting its best possible alternate use in industry from out of various uses. It makes use of experts, professional and these services leads to use of their skills, knowledge, and proper utilization and avoids wastage. If employees and machines are producing its maximum there is no under employment of any resources.
WhyManagement is Crucial? • Reduces Costs - It gets maximum results through minimum input by proper planning and by using minimum input & getting maximum output. Management uses physical, human and financial resources in such a manner which results in best combination. This helps in cost reduction. • Establishes Sound Organization - No overlapping of efforts (smooth and coordinated functions). To establish sound organizational structure is one of the objective of management which is in tune with objective of organization and for fulfillment of this, it establishes effective authority & responsibility relationship i.e. who is accountable to whom, who can give instructions to whom, who are superiors & who are subordinates. Management fills up various positions with right persons, having right skills, training and qualification. All jobs should be cleared to everyone.
WhyManagement is Crucial? • Establishes Equilibrium - It enables the organization to survive in changing environment. It keeps in touch with the changing environment. With the change is external environment, the initial co-ordination of organization must be changed. So it adapts organization to changing demand of market / changing needs of societies. It is responsible for growth and survival of organization. • Essentials for Prosperity of Society - Efficient management leads to better economical production which helps in turn to increase the welfare of people. Good management makes a difficult task easier by avoiding wastage of scarce resource. It improves standard of living. It increases the profit which is beneficial to business and society will get maximum output at minimum cost by creating employment opportunities which generate income in hands. Organization comes with new products and researches beneficial for society.
What is e-Management? e-Management is about taking all the company’s internal and externalorganizational processes to the next level: using software tools to centralize the data, to interconnect systems and customers and to use the feedback from those tools to take appropriate action. Using basic tools like“Microsoft Excel” or “Microsoft Access” is not quite e-Management, but is an intermediary step from paper-work to the true e-Management. e-Management systems allow the interconnections of all SMEs suppliers, partners, customers and consumers, providing accurate measurements for all indicators required for an effective management decision. Implementing an e-management system is not an easy – and not cheap, so accurate planning must be prepared before taking action. But the costs will be covered by the benefits if the company is expanding and the processes have an increased complexity.
e-ManagementPrinciples E-Managementsystem is designedwithcombination of technology-basedsystemandcharacteristics of futureorganization in futureworld. Combiningthoseelementsproduces e-managementprinciples as follows: Integratedsystem :Intoday’s global networkedeconomy, integratedinformationsystem is merely a fundamentalto a competitiveadvantage. If a companywantstoremain a player in thefuture, theyneedtothink of waystotiethesupplychainanddemandchaintotheintegratedsystems, bothinternallyandexternally. But beforetheorganization can integratetheirsystemwithotherexternalsystems, theyneedtointegrateinternallyallthedepartmentsandstaffsto be onesystem, or it willcauseburdensorproblemstotheorganization. Thentheinternalintegratedsystemwillintegratewiththeexternalsystemtotiethecustomersandthesuppliers. Failuretointegrateexternally can causemajordamagetothesupplierandcustomer since theexternalrequestsneedto be immediatelyprocessedbyalltherelateddepartments in theorganization. Therearetwomajorintegrations in practice: databaseintegrationandsystemintegration.
e-ManagementPrinciples Automatedsystem :In E-Managementenvironment, theintegratedsystem is designedtoautomatealltheprocesses in theorganization. It is not justlike a normal conventionalcomputerizationwhere it justautomates a certainorcriticalpart of thewholeprocesses. Fullautomationmeansthat it avoids total manualprocessormanualtransferring of informationbetweenallrelatedentities in theorganization. Alltheprocesseswithin a departmentorinterdepartmentwill be done automaticallybytheIntegratedSystem. Therearefourprinciples of automation: processreengineering, real-time data transferring, minimum manualprocessand minimum humaninterference.
e-ManagementPrinciples • Intelligentsystem :Most of theconventionalcomputerizationprojectsareonlyrecordmanagementsystem, lackingtheintelligentvalue, especially in analyzing, thinkingandplanning.E- ManagementSystem is designedwithArtificialIntelligent (AI) in all of itsprocessingengineswhichareincorporatedwithformulas, algorithms, procedures, policiesandprocesses. Thus, it can simulatethe ‘ExpertsMind’ in thesystemtoavoidhumandependence. It can ensurethatallmembers in theorganizationarefollowingtherulesandregulations in thebestpractice. It can alsoavoidmisuseormisconduct of theoperation. Futurebusinessworlddemands a lot of highlevel of thinkingandstrategicplanningandcontrollingtofacetheworld’schallenges. Therearealsoseveralprinciplesaccordingly: optimizingandtuning, predictingandforecasting, summarizing, analyzingandproposing, self-troubleshootingandmachinelearning.
e-ManagementPrinciples • Paperlesssystem :Paperlessenvironment is one of themostimportantelements in e-management, andalltheInformationSystemsshall be designedtowards a paperlessenvironment. Printedreportsshall be convertedto online queries. Allapplications, approvals, meetingsorreportingmechanismsshall be changedtoensuretheuse of online informationinstead of printingthehardcopy of thereports, since printedinformationwill be out-datedonceprinted in a dynamicorganization. Onlythosedocumentsneededbyexternaluserswhichcannot be connected online arejustifiedtohaveprintedhardcopy, otherthanthatshall be accessed online. Some of theattributesare: online informationaccess, online announcement, online applicationandapproval, online notificationand online reporting.
e-ManagementPrinciples • Dynamicsystem:A dynamicorganizationshallmanagechanges in themostfastandefficientmanner. The E-managementsystem, which is thesupporting element in theorganization, shall be verydynamicandflexibletoallowanychangesneededbytheorganization.Thesystemandprocedure in E-management’senvironmentshall be designedtocaterforchanges at any time as required. It has tobalancebetweenstandardizationandflexibility. Characteristics of dynamicsystemare: scalable, configurable, customizableandpersonalizable.
Attributes of e-Management Theconceptualdesign of e-management is based on theintegration of allthemajorattributes in e-manegementenviroment. Thefollowingwillfocus on thoseattributes: • DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) Thecoreortheheart of thewholesystem is theEnterpriseDatabase, which is a centralwarehousewhereall data arecollected, stored, analyzedandretrieved in an efficientandstructuredmanner. In E-Managementenvironment, theEnterpriseDatabaseshould be a singleintegrateddatabase in ordertoensure data integrityandsecurity. Andthisdatabaseshall be supportedbytheactualDatabaseManagementSystemssuch as Oracle, InformixorSybasedatabasemanagementsystem.
DBMS Tochoose a DBMS is a verycriticaltask. In e-managementenvironment, the DBMS shall be managedby a dedicatedDatabaseAdministrator (DBA). DBA willmake sure thedatabase is runningsmoothlyandefficiently. General functions of DBA include: Establishdatabasedesignpolicyforoverallsystem; Establishupdate data dictionaryforsystempeopleandend-users; Organize andmaintaindatabasestructures; Establishdatabasedocumentation, Advisetheotherprojectteam on theefficient data manipulationapproach; Developsecurityprocedurestosafeguardthedatabase; Developbackupprocedures; Resolveanyissues on data managementandmanipulation; Maintainthedatabasemanagement software.
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS) ManagementInformationSystem (MIS) is a completeandintegratedapplicationsystemtosupporttheoperation of theorganization. It is designed on top of E-Management’sPrinciplestoachieve E-Management’svisionandmission. With MIS, alllevels of userswill be interfacedwiththeEnterprisedatabase, as it consists of alltheapplicationsneededbyallstaff, customer, supplierandmanagement of theorganization in orderto do theirtaskorjobefficiently. Itshallcoverallprocesses in theorganizationwith no exclusion of anysingledepartmentorunit.
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS) • Everyone in theorganizationwill be providedwiththeappropriateapplicationsandeveryone has a rightto be part of thesystemto tap allthebenefitsfromthe e-Management’senvironment. Itshall be designed as an integratedprocessacrossallthedepartment, unitandfaculties. Itshallbase on theprocesses, not on theindividualneedsorinterest. In e-managementenvironmentthedevelopment of MIS willfollowall e-Management’sprincipleswhichareintegrated, automated, intelligent, dynamicandpaperless. Allapplications in MIS will be interactedwith a singleenterprisedatabasethrough DBMS. All MIS applicationsshallalsoupdateandretrieve data fromthesingleenterprisedatabase.
DevicesManagement E-managementwillutilizeallavailabledevices in theindustries in ordertoincreasethelevel of automation. Thedeviceswill be interactingwith MIS applicationandDatabaseManagementSystem. Itwillupdatethe data intoenterprisedatabasethrough MIS applications. In e-managementenvironment, therewill not be anytemporarydatabase at the device level, since thistemporarydatabasewillcauseerror in batchupdatingtotheenterprisedatabaseandmost of the time the data in enterprisedatabasewill not be up-to-date as it is not real- time updatedfromthedevices. Thedevicesshall be changedfrom time to time based on theavailabletechnology. Everyone in theorganizationshall be alertwiththenewdevices in the market, andgrasptheopportunitytousethenew device in ordertoimprovetheautomation in theprocesses.
UserManagement Thefourthlayer is alltheuserswhoareinvolved in usingthesystemeither as a processowneror an end-user. Alltheusersmust be identifiedandcategorizedproperlytoensureeverytype of usersaregiven a properattention in terms of planning, designing, developmentandimplementation. Thecriticalcategories of usersare Data owner, Processowner, SystemownerandEndusers.
UserManagement • Data owner:This is theperson, unitordepartmentwho is responsibleforanyaspect of data in a particularsystem. Thesame data owner can exist in severalsub-systems. Alsoforonesinglesub-system, therecould be morethanone data owner. In E-managementenviroment, theresponsibility of data owner is distributedtotheactualorreal data owner, andthereal data ownerwill be responsibletoenterthe data, updatethe data, deletethe data andmaintainthe data. Be sure thatallthe data will be updated online bytheactual data ownerdirectlyintothemaindatabase in paperlessenvironmentandall data in themaindatabaseshall be consideredvalidandverifiedbythe data owner at any moment of time. Thus, everyoneauthorizedtoretrievetheinformation can retrievethe data at any time with no needtocheckthevalidity of the data. Andthose data thatneedto be approvedwill be approvedbytheactualapprover.
UserManagement • Processowner:This is theunitordepartmentwho is responsibleforsome of theprocesses in a particularsystem. Specifically, it is supposedto be responsibletodesignandfinalizetheprocessflow, policyandprocedure of a particularprocess in theoverallsystem. Forexample, in Travelingand Transport ManagementSystem, process of work-ordershall be ownedbyHumanResourceDivision since it involvesstaffhierarchyandstaff’spersonalinformation; Transport processwill be ownedby Transport UnitandTravelingclaimwill be ownedbyFinanceDivision. One of theprocessownerswill be appointed as systemownertocoordinatethedesign, developmentandimplementation of allprocesseswithinthesystem.
UserManagement • Systemowner:This is theunitordepartmentwho is responsiblefortheoverallsystemstartingfromplanning, designing, developing, anddeployingtoenhancing. Inconventionalsystemdevelopment, normallythesystemowner is theComputerCenter, whichneedstodevelopallthesystems. Soifmeanwhiletheybecomethesystemowner, theirworkloadwould be unbalance, whichcouldcausebigproblemstothesystem. Inotherwords, ComputerCenter is bettertoonlyconcentrate on technicalprocess, leavingthewholecoordination of thesystemdevelopmentandimplementationconductedbythesystemowner in businessarea. As an owner, therearecertaincriterianeedto be adopted in ordertosupportthewholedevelopmentandimplementation of thesystem, such as coordinationability, knowledgeableandexperience, creativeandinnovative, etc.
UserManagement • Endusers:This can be categorizedaccordingtothelevels of MIS ,since differentlevels of systemsrequiredifferenttypes of users.
EndUsers • TransactionProcessingSystemis tohelpOperationalWorkerstokeeptracks of dailyorelementaryactivitiesortransactions of theorganization, likebyprovidingpurchasingmodule , AccountPayableandReceivablemodule in FinancialSystem, Staff Profile, Payroll, Leave in StaffManagementSystem, Student Profile, SubjectRegistration, Marks Entry in Student/AcademicManagementSystem. Andmost of theapplications at thislevelwill be in terms of data entryscreenanddetailtransactionlistingreports.
EndUsers • Office automationsystemembeddedwithallprocedures, algorithmandformulas, is tosupportOperationManagerstomanageandautomatealltheintegratedprocesses, such as payrollprocessing, resultprocessingandfinancialprocessing. Most of theapplications at thislevelwill be in terms of processingbuttons, processstatisticreportaftereachprocessing, checklistreportforerrorsandunresolvedlistingforunresolvedtransaction.
EndUsers • KnowledgeworkerSupportSystem is tosupportknowledgeworkerstointegratenewknowledgeintotheorganization. ExamplesareKnowledgePortalthroughKnowledgeManagementSystem, AcademicAdvisoryModule, andCounselingSystem. Most of theapplication at thislevel is in terms of knowledge-basedscreenwithfull of informationandknowledge.
EndUsers • DecisionSupportSystem (DSS) is toprovidemiddlemanagerswiththereportsand on-lineaccesstotheorganization’scurrentperformanceandhistoricalrecordsdepending on transactioninformationSystem (TPS) formonitoring, controlling, decision-makingandadministrativeactivities.Examplesareactualcostexceedbudgetanalysis, comparisonbetweenlecturerandstudent’sperformance, comparisonbetween SPM andUniversity’sresult, Comparisonbetweenbudget of eachdepartment.
EndUsers • ExecutiveInformationSystem (EIS),withDrill-down & Data Miningfeatures, is tohelpSeniormanagerstotackleandaddressstrategicissuesandlong-termtrends inside andoutsidetheorganization. It can evenmatchchanges in theexternalenvironmentwiththeorganization’sexistingcapability. ExamplesareIntelligentSearch Engine, FinancialForecastingSystem, AcademicandFinancialPerformanceAnalysis, Trend System- Student, Staff, Financial, HumanResourceDevelopmentPlanningSystemandStrategicPlanningSystem.
EXTERNAL ENTITY • Thelastlayer is theexternalentities of theorganizationsuch as parents, ministry, sponsors, suppliers, customers, banksoranyonewho has interactionwiththeorganizationorwhoneedstoaccesstheinformationfromtheEnterpriseDatabase. Inconventional IT environment, therewon’t be any online accessgiventoanyexternalentities, duetothesecurityandcapability of theinternalsystem. But in e-managementenvironment, withitssecurity, authorizationmanagementsystemandinfrastructurestrategy, alltheseproblems can be managedproperly. Itwillallowtheexternalentitiestoenterthemaindatabasewithoutanyworries. Theywill be givenaccesswithcustomizedinformationtheyneed, andthey can access it any time anywhere. Alltransactionswill be done online in paperlessenvironment.
e-ManagementDesignStrategy Todesign e-managementsystem, thereareseveralstrategiesthatneedto be addressed. • Databasedesignstrategy Thedatabaseshall be designedwiththefundamentalprinciples of databasedesigningagreed in Software EngineeringDiscipline. Themajorelements in databasedesignstressed in e-managementare:
DatabaseDesignStrategy • DatabaseIntegration • TableNormalization • No Hard-Coding • DatabaseConstraint • User Access Control • LockingManagement
DatabaseDesignStrategy • Databaseintegration :
DatabaseDesignStrategy • Databaseintegration : Alltablesforallapplicationsshall be designed as a singleapplication in a singleandintegrateddatabasewithoutanyduplicatetables, recordsorfields. Alltablesshall be sharedbyallapplications. Thedesign of tablesshallsupportdynamicsystemdevelopment, fastaccess, easyandefficientdatabasemaintenance. Theprocedure of creatingtablesandfieldsshall be coordinatedbyDatabaseAdministrator (DBA) in ordertoensurethattheintegration of allthedatabaseobjects is properly done.
DatabaseDesignStrategy • Tablenormalization:In e-managementenvironment, levels of normalizationwillvaryfromonetabletoanothertable. Itwilldepend on the data updatingandretrievingconstraints. At least, level of tablenormalizationshould be followed in ordertoensure data integrityandavoid data redundancyandperformanceproblems. • TableandfieldIndexing:Indexingshall be appliedwheneverneededandpossible. Not allthetablesandfieldsneedto be indexed. Decision on whichtablethatneedsto be indexedshould be analyzedbased on functions of thetables. Heavyupdatetablecannot be indexedwithmanyfields since it willslowdowntheupdatingprocess since it needstoupdatealltheindexesforthetables. Heavyretrievaltableshould be indexedmoreforfasterretrieval of records.
DatabaseDesignStrategy • No hard-coding:Field, recordandtablecontrolshall be done at databaselevel, not in thecoding, in ordertoallowflexibility in managingthedatabaseobjectlinkingandcontrols. Most of theattributesandproperties of fields can be set in thedatabase, not in theapplication. This is crucial since some of thedevelopermightupdatethe data throughback-enddatabase engine, andwithoutthesecontrol, it mightcauseerrorandmistake in theprocess of updatingortroubleshooting. • Databaseconstraints:Field, recordandtableconstraintsshall be incorporated in thedatabase. Parentchildrelationshipshall be controlledproperly in thedatabase. Properprimarykeyandcombinationkeyshall be createdtocontrolrecorduniquenessandtablerelationshipbetweentables. Lookup-tablerelationshipshall be definedthroughproperforeignkeyconstraint.
DatabaseDesignStrategy • Useraccesscontrol:Useraccesstothedatabaseshall be controlledproperlybyuserauthorizationprocedure. Itshallincorporatealltheusersincludingtechnicaland normal users. Technicalordeveloperwill be restrictedtoaccessthedatabase, since theyare not theowner of the data andtheycannotupdatethe data. Anytestinginvolve data updatingwill be done in developmentdatabase. • Lockingmanagement: DBMS shall be abletocontroltherecordortablelockingautomatically. Itshouldalsoallowthe DBA tospecify a specificlockingmechanismforcertainenvironment.
ApplicationDesignStrategy • Applicationshall be designedwith e-management’sprincipleswhichareintegrated, automated, intelligent, paperlessanddynamic. Application is just a sub-module of an integratedenterpriseapplication. But allapplicationsshallincorporatethemaximumautomationandintelligence. Inconventionalenvironment, most of theapplicationsarejust a recordmanagement. Itdoes not havetheintelligenceandautomation, andthepurpose is justtoenter, storeandretrieve data forreporting. In e-managementenvironment, allapplicationswillutilizeallpotentialandcapability of IT technologytoimprovethewholeprocess. Themajorelements of applicationdesignare:
ApplicationDesignStrategy • ApplicationIntegration • Object-OrientedApplication • Flexibleand no hard-coded • ComprehensiveDesign
ApplicationDesignStrategy • Applicationintegration:Allforms, reports, queryscreensandanyapplicationobjectsshall be designed as an integratedapplication in a singleapplicationenvironment. Allapplicationsshall be treated as a sub-moduleor program unit of a singleenterpriseapplication.
ApplicationDesignStrategy • Objectorientedapplication: Allapplicationsshall be designed in an objectorientedenvironment. Thestructure of theapplicationshall be dividedintosmall program unitswitheach program unitstored in thedatabaseto be accessibleandsharedbyotherapplications. All program unitsshould be treated as procedureorfunctiontoallowparametersto be passedbyanyapplication. • Flexibleand no hard-coded:Allapplicationsshall not have hard-codedsetting. Anychange of theapplicationshall be done throughthedatabasechanges. Allformula, proceduresandalgorithmshall be specified in thetable in thedatabase, in ordertoavoidheavymaintenance of thecodes. Maintainingcodeswillcauseinterruptions in theproductionenvironment.
ApplicationDesignStrategy • Comprehensivedesign: Allapplicationsshallcoverallsteps in theprocesswithoutexclusion, coveringfromthinking, planningprocessuntildecisionmakingaftertheprocesscompletesforimprovementandenhancement. Element of paperlessshould be incorporated in ordertoallow online interaction in theapplications.
e-ManagementHistory The term e-management was coined byFrancis Ohanyido. E-management is using technology to improve and facilitate the education/ business/ government/… process as well as maintain electronic records of the process flow.