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Overview of Key HRM Topics. Agenda. 1. HR Management: An Overview 2. Generic HR Roles 3. Job Analysis and Descriptions 4. Workforce Planning and Recruitment 5. Employee Selection 6 . Training and Development 7 . Performance Management 8 . Career Management 9 . Reward Management Systems

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Overview of Key HRM Topics

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  • 1. HR Management: An Overview
  • 2. Generic HR Roles
  • 3. Job Analysis and Descriptions
  • 4. Workforce Planning and Recruitment
  • 5. Employee Selection
  • 6. Training and Development
  • 7. Performance Management
  • 8. Career Management
  • 9. Reward Management Systems
  • 10. Legal Frameworks
  • 11. Summary
  • By the end of this session, participants should be able to:
    • Define human resources (HR)
    • Explain the basic differences between personnel and HRM
    • Understand what topics fall under the HR umbrella
    • Have a broad understanding of the concepts of HR best practice
human resources
Human Resources
  • Human resources = the strategic proactive approach to the management of people
  • HR is aligned to the goals of an organisation and its future direction. It is concerned with longer term people issues, issues of structure, quality, culture, values, commitment and the matching of resources to future need
  • Personnel = a series of reactive administrative tasks which enable the basic employment contract to be fulfilled
hr strategy and outcomes
HR Strategy and Outcomes

Measurable Result (KPIs)

Government Strategy/



  • HR best practice is based on the principle of meritocracy i.e.
  • you are recruited based on merit
  • you are promoted based on merit
  • you are trained based on merit
  • you are given a high appraisal score based on merit
  • you are rewarded based on merit
  • your career is managed based on merit
  • Therefore the harder and smarter you work, the more successful you are likely to become.
  • This is a key workforce motivator.
hr strategist strategic partners
HR Strategist – ‘Strategic Partners’


  • To advise on HR strategies and policies
  • To ensure that the HR function provides the support required to implement these strategies and policies
  • To ensure the functions are operating to world class standards
hr managers employee champions
HR Managers – ‘Employee Champions’


  • To provide advice and cost effective HR services which enable the MDA to achieve its goals
  • To provide advice and effective services which enable the MDA to meet its responsibilities to the people employed in the civil service
hr personnel admin experts
HR Personnel – ‘Admin Experts’


  • To provide personnel services (recruitment, appraisal, career management, general advice etc.) for all officers and junior personnel staff
job analysis
Job Analysis
  • Job analysis = a method for understanding what is required in a particular role
  • This means thinking about not only the content of the job but also its PURPOSE.
  • The analysis is used to form the basis of a person specification and job description used for recruitment.
person specification
Person Specification
  • Person specification = describes the characteristics necessary to perform well in a particular role e.g.
    • team player
    • good written and oral communicator
    • proactive
    • ability to prioritise tasks
    • works well under pressure
    • organised
    • hardworking
    • excellent interpersonal skills
job description
Job Description
  • Job description = describes the skills needed for someone to be able to do a specific job e.g.
  • Degree in Social Sciences
  • Masters in Human Resource Management
  • 5 years working as an HR Manager
  • International experience, preferred
  • Management experience, essential
  • Experience using Oracle/PeopleSoft
determining no of recruits
Determining No. of Recruits

Study of a firm’s past employment needs over a period of years to predict future needs

A forecasting technique for determining future staff needs by using ratios between resources demands and the number of employees needed

recruitment from external sources
Recruitment from External Sources
  • This will be influenced by several factors, including:

When the economic conditions are relatively difficult, there will usually be an oversupply, or the number of applicants will be much higher than demand. In such a case, the organisation will find it relatively easy to select new employees from the large number of applicants

recruitment from external sources1
Recruitment from External Sources

When the sector is one that is considered a ‘rare’ sector, the organisation will have more difficulty in recruiting staff for this sector. For example, computer technology or cellular engineering

recruitment from external sources2
Recruitment from External Sources

It will tend to be easier for a organisation to find and recruit the best people if the organisation has a good reputation, therefore the best people will flock to apply to the organisation

basic concept of selection tests
Basic Concept of Selection Tests
  • The quality of an employee selection test is determined by three main factors:
  • Criterion Validity – a type of validity based on showing that scores on the test are related to job performance
  • Content Validity – a test that is ‘content’ valid is one in which the test contains a fair sample of the tasks and skills actually needed for the job in question
  • Reliability – the consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with identical or equivalent test
some types of selection test
Some Types of Selection Test
  • Cognitive Ability Test
  • Personality Test
  • Interview
cognitive ability tests
Cognitive Ability Tests
  • Cognitive Ability Test = paper and pencil test or assessment measure of an individual’s mental ability or intelligence e.g. verbal reasoning or numerical test
advantages of cognitive tests
Advantages of Cognitive Tests
  • Highly reliable
  • Verbal reasoning and numerical tests have shown high validity for a wide range of jobs
  • The validity rises with the increasing complexity of the job
  • May be administered in group settings so many applicants can be tested at the same time
  • Scoring of the tests can be done with computer scanning equipment
  • Lower cost than personality tests
disadvantages of cognitive tests
Disadvantages of Cognitive Tests
  • Certain minorities may perform slightly lower than the majority, dependent on their upbringing/experiences
  • Differences between males and females (e.g. mathematical ability) may negatively affect the scores of one gender (usually women)
personality tests
Personality Tests
  • Personality Tests = a selection procedure measure of the personality characteristics of applicants, related to future job performance
  • Personality tests typically measure 1 to 5 personality dimensions: extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience
advantages of personality tests
Advantages of Personality Tests
  • Can result in lower turnover if applicants are selected for traits that are highly correlated with employees who have high longevity within the organisation
  • Can reveal more information about an applicant’s abilities and interests
  • Can identify interpersonal traits that may be needed for certain jobs
disadvantages of personality tests
Disadvantages of Personality Tests
  • Difficult to measure personality traits that may not be well defined
  • Responses may be biased by the applicant’s desire to frame answers in a way they feel would improve their chances of selection
  • Lack of evidence to support the validity of the use of personality tests
  • Interviews = a selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of the applicants’ oral responses to questions posed
advantages of interviews
Advantages of Interviews
  • Useful for determining if the applicant has the necessary communication or social skills for the job
  • Can assess the applicant’s job knowledge
  • Can be used for selection amongst equally qualified applicants
  • Enables the supervisor and/or co-workers to determine if there is compatibility between the applicant and the employees
  • Allows the applicant to ask questions which may reveal additional information useful for making a selection decision
disadvantages of interviews
Disadvantages of Interviews
  • Subjective evaluations are made
  • Decisions tend to be made within the first few minutes of the interview with the remainder used to validate or justify the original decision
  • Interviewers form stereotypes concerning the characteristics required for a certain job
  • Research has shown minorities again are disproportionately selected
  • Negative information seems to be given more weight
  • Not as reliable as tests
assessing training needs
Assessing Training Needs

A detailed analysis of a job to identify the skills required, so that an appropriate training programme can be instituted

Careful study of competency level to identify a deficiency and then correct it with a training programme, or some other development intervention

enhance training effectiveness1
Enhance Training Effectiveness
  • At the start of training, provide the trainees with a bird’s-eye view of the material to be presented. Knowing the overall picture facilitates learning
  • Use a variety of familiar examples when presenting material
  • Organise the material so that it is presented in a logical manner and meaningful units
  • Try to use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees
  • Use as many visual aids as possible
enhance training effectiveness2
Enhance Training Effectiveness
  • Maximise similarity between the training situation and the work situation
  • Provide adequate training practice
  • Identify each feature of the step in the process
enhance training effectiveness3
Enhance Training Effectiveness
  • People learn best by doing. Try to provide as much realistic practice as possible
  • Trainees learn best when correct responses on their part are immediately reinforced
  • Trainees learn best when they learn at their own pace. If possible, let trainees pace themselves
evaluation of training effectiveness1
Evaluation of Training Effectiveness

Evaluate trainees’ reactions to the programme. Did they like it? Did they think it worthwhile?

Test the trainees to determine if they learned the principles, skills and facts they needed to learn

evaluation of training effectiveness2
Evaluation of Training Effectiveness

Ask whether the trainees’ behaviour on the job changed because of the training programme

What final results were achieved in terms of the training objectives previously set?

why appraise people
Why Appraise People?
  • Appraisals provide information upon which promotion and salary decisions can be made
  • Appraisals provide an opportunity for a manager and his/her subordinate to sit down and review the subordinate’s work-related behaviour, and then develop a plan for corrective action
  • Appraisals provide a good opportunity to review the officer’s career plans in light of his/her shown strengths and weaknesses
  • Types of appraisal:
  • Self-appraisal
  • Downward appraisal
  • Upward appraisal
  • 360 appraisal
performance management cycle1
Performance Management Cycle

Defining the performance standards means making sure that you and your subordinate agree on his/her duties and targets that you expect

Appraising performance means comparing your subordinate’s actual performance to the standard/targets set

Providing feedback means discussing plans for any development that is required

bias in the appraisal process
Bias in the Appraisal Process

The ‘halo’ effect occurs when a supervisor’s rating of a subordinate on one trait biases the rating of that person on other traits. Opposite of ‘horn’ effect

A tendency to rate all employees the same way, such as rating them all average

bias in the appraisal process1
Bias in the Appraisal Process

The problem that occurs when a supervisor has the tendency to rate all subordinates unjustifiably high, undermining the value of the scores

The tendency to allow individual differences such as age, race and sex to affect the appraisal ratings that employees receive

performance appraisal element
Performance Appraisal Element

Performance appraisal elements have two main categories:

appraisal meeting
Appraisal Meeting
  • Value is in the feedback conversation!
  • Assessment of past performance:
  • - Measurement of last year’s performance against specific, individual objectives
  • - Feedback given on strengths and development areas, including what could have been done differently
  • Assessment against competencies
  • Setting of future objectives:

- agreement of individual objectives for next 12 months

- these should build on development areas highlighted





Defined by set promotion criteria

Defined by performance appraisal

career anchors
Career Anchors
  • Career anchor = a concern or value that someone will not give up if a choice has to be made
  • Career anchors, as their name implies, are the pivots around which a person’s career swings. A person becomes conscious of them as a result of learning about his or her talents and abilities
five career anchors1
Five Career Anchors
  • People who have a strong technical/functional career anchor tend to avoid decisions that would drive them toward general management
  • Instead, they make decisions that will enable them to remain and grow in their chosen technical or function field
five career anchors2
Five Career Anchors
  • People who show strong motivation to become managers
  • Their career experience enables them to believe that they have the skills and values necessary to rise to such general management positions
five career anchors3
Five Career Anchors
  • People who go on to become successful entrepreneurs
  • These people seem to have a need to build or create something that is entirely their own product – a product or process that bears their name, a company of their own, or a personal fortune that reflects their accomplishments
five career anchors4
Five Career Anchors
  • People who are driven by the need to be on their own, free from the dependence that can arise when a person elects to work in a large organisation
  • Some of these people decide to become consultants, working either alone or as part of a relatively small firm. Others choose to become professors, freelance writers or proprietors of a small retail business
five career anchors5
Five Career Anchors
  • People who are mostly concerned with long-running career stability and job security
  • They seem willing to do what is required to maintain job security, a decent income and a stable future in the form of a good retirement programme and benefits
reward systems
Reward Systems
  • The system of pay and benefits used by an organisation to reward workers
  • Money not the only method!
  • Salary
  • Benefits
  • Allowances
  • Awards
  • Promotion
  • Pensions
  • Health insurance
  • Flexibility at work
  • Holidays
  • Working hours etc.
employment contracts
Employment Contracts
  • The Labour Act (“The Labour Law”) (1971) states that every employer must give to each of its employees a written contract within three months of the employer starting work
  • The contract must specify the particulars of the employer and the employee, the position and job description/functions, other terms and conditions of the contract
  • Following the implementation of the Pension Reforms Act and the National Health Insurance Scheme these details are also normally now included in the contract
  • In addition to the contract of employment, most organisations also ensure that they have a detailed Staff Handbook which gives fuller details on other matters necessary for high efficiency and harmony in the employer/employee relationship
trade union membership
Trade Union Membership
  • It is unlawful for an employment contract to require or to restrain an employee from joining a Trade Union
  • Employees' contracts cannot be terminated by reason of the employee joining a Trade Union
collective agreements
Collective Agreements
  • Many organisations usually enter into collective agreements with their employees through Trade Unions
  • The objective of a collective agreement is to maintain industrial harmony
  • The Nigerian Supreme Court has however held in a number of its judgements that collective agreements are only enforceable when the terms and conditions of the collective agreement are incorporated into each and every employee's contract of employment
annual leave
Annual Leave
  • Nigerian Employment Law requires that every employee in Nigeria, who has been in the employment for a continuous period of twelve months, is entitled to a holiday with full pay of at least six working days
  • The Law recognises it may be necessary for an employer and its employee to, by mutual consent, defer an employee's annual holiday but this holiday must still be taken with pay
  • Deferment of annual holidays is on the condition that the cumulative holiday is not deferred beyond a twenty-four month period
  • It is unlawful under Nigerian Law for an employer to encourage its employee or for the employee to elect to be paid a “special” holiday allowance in order for the employee not to go for the annual holiday
maternity leave
Maternity Leave
  • Apregnant woman is entitled to Maternity Leave of at least six weeks before the delivery of her child and six weeks after the delivery of the child
  • A pregnant woman is also entitled to 50% of her normal wage while on maternity leave
  • Where the woman, for medical reasons, exceeds the period allowed, she cannot be dismissed if she produces a Medical Certificate informing the employer of her medical condition
  • Nursing mothers in employment are entitled to half an hour, twice daily, to nurse and feed their infant
non return to work after leave of absence
Non Return to Work After Leave of Absence
  • Where an employee does not return to work after his permitted holiday, it must be implied that the employee has by his conduct repudiated his employment contract
  • The Nigerian Supreme Court has decided that in serious cases, if an employee exceeds the period of his study leave or annual holidays without the consent of his employer, this behaviour can amount to gross misconduct and the employer is entitled to either terminate or dismiss the employee
  • Redundancy is the involuntary and permanent loss of employment caused by excess manpower
  • Jobs not people
  • Nigerian Employment Law recommends the principle of ‘last in, first out’ to be adopted by an employer subject to factors such as relative merit, skill, ability and reliability
workmen compensation act
Workmen Compensation Act
  • The Workmen Compensation Act (“The Workmen Compensation Law”) provides a mechanism for the payment of compensation to employees who sustain injuries in the cause of their employment
  • An employer is not liable where:

- the injury does not incapacitate the workman for a period exceeding 3 days

- where the injury is directly attributable to the negligence or misconduct of the workman

- where a false representation is made

issues with legal framework
Issues with Legal Framework
  • Limited regulation (Ministry of Labour)
  • Small fines/penalties for non-compliance
  • Officers in the public sector are offered greater employment protection (through the Civil Service Rules) than those in the private sector, well over and above the statutory national legal framework
  • What do we mean by human resources?
  • How is Professional HRM different from personnel?
  • What topics/areas fall under the HR umbrella?
  • What is the overarching philosophy of HR best practice?