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  1. Overview of Key HRM Topics

  2. Agenda • 1. HR Management: An Overview • 2. Generic HR Roles • 3. Job Analysis and Descriptions • 4. Workforce Planning and Recruitment • 5. Employee Selection • 6. Training and Development • 7. Performance Management • 8. Career Management • 9. Reward Management Systems • 10. Legal Frameworks • 11. Summary

  3. Objectives • By the end of this session, participants should be able to: • Define human resources (HR) • Explain the basic differences between personnel and HRM • Understand what topics fall under the HR umbrella • Have a broad understanding of the concepts of HR best practice

  4. HR Management: An Overview

  5. Human Resources • Human resources = the strategic proactive approach to the management of people • HR is aligned to the goals of an organisation and its future direction. It is concerned with longer term people issues, issues of structure, quality, culture, values, commitment and the matching of resources to future need • Personnel = a series of reactive administrative tasks which enable the basic employment contract to be fulfilled

  6. Personnel v. HRM

  7. HR Management Cycle

  8. HR Strategy and Outcomes Measurable Result (KPIs) Government Strategy/ MDA Strategy

  9. Philosophy • HR best practice is based on the principle of meritocracy i.e. • you are recruited based on merit • you are promoted based on merit • you are trained based on merit • you are given a high appraisal score based on merit • you are rewarded based on merit • your career is managed based on merit • Therefore the harder and smarter you work, the more successful you are likely to become. • This is a key workforce motivator.

  10. Generic HR Roles

  11. HR Strategist – ‘Strategic Partners’ Role: • To advise on HR strategies and policies • To ensure that the HR function provides the support required to implement these strategies and policies • To ensure the functions are operating to world class standards

  12. HR Managers – ‘Employee Champions’ Role: • To provide advice and cost effective HR services which enable the MDA to achieve its goals • To provide advice and effective services which enable the MDA to meet its responsibilities to the people employed in the civil service

  13. HR Personnel – ‘Admin Experts’ Role: • To provide personnel services (recruitment, appraisal, career management, general advice etc.) for all officers and junior personnel staff

  14. Job Analysis and Descriptions

  15. Job Analysis • Job analysis = a method for understanding what is required in a particular role • This means thinking about not only the content of the job but also its PURPOSE. • The analysis is used to form the basis of a person specification and job description used for recruitment.

  16. Person Specification • Person specification = describes the characteristics necessary to perform well in a particular role e.g. • team player • good written and oral communicator • proactive • ability to prioritise tasks • works well under pressure • organised • hardworking • excellent interpersonal skills

  17. Job Description • Job description = describes the skills needed for someone to be able to do a specific job e.g. • Degree in Social Sciences • Masters in Human Resource Management • 5 years working as an HR Manager • International experience, preferred • Management experience, essential • Experience using Oracle/PeopleSoft

  18. Recruitment Process

  19. Workforce Planning & Employee Recruitment

  20. Workforce Planning

  21. Workforce Planning

  22. Determining No. of Recruits Study of a firm’s past employment needs over a period of years to predict future needs A forecasting technique for determining future staff needs by using ratios between resources demands and the number of employees needed

  23. Recruitment from External Sources • This will be influenced by several factors, including: When the economic conditions are relatively difficult, there will usually be an oversupply, or the number of applicants will be much higher than demand. In such a case, the organisation will find it relatively easy to select new employees from the large number of applicants

  24. Recruitment from External Sources When the sector is one that is considered a ‘rare’ sector, the organisation will have more difficulty in recruiting staff for this sector. For example, computer technology or cellular engineering

  25. Recruitment from External Sources It will tend to be easier for a organisation to find and recruit the best people if the organisation has a good reputation, therefore the best people will flock to apply to the organisation

  26. Recruitment Sources

  27. Employee Selection

  28. Basic Concept of Selection Tests • The quality of an employee selection test is determined by three main factors: • Criterion Validity – a type of validity based on showing that scores on the test are related to job performance • Content Validity – a test that is ‘content’ valid is one in which the test contains a fair sample of the tasks and skills actually needed for the job in question • Reliability – the consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with identical or equivalent test

  29. Some Types of Selection Test • Cognitive Ability Test • Personality Test • Interview

  30. Cognitive Ability Tests • Cognitive Ability Test = paper and pencil test or assessment measure of an individual’s mental ability or intelligence e.g. verbal reasoning or numerical test

  31. Advantages of Cognitive Tests • Highly reliable • Verbal reasoning and numerical tests have shown high validity for a wide range of jobs • The validity rises with the increasing complexity of the job • May be administered in group settings so many applicants can be tested at the same time • Scoring of the tests can be done with computer scanning equipment • Lower cost than personality tests

  32. Disadvantages of Cognitive Tests • Certain minorities may perform slightly lower than the majority, dependent on their upbringing/experiences • Differences between males and females (e.g. mathematical ability) may negatively affect the scores of one gender (usually women)

  33. Personality Tests • Personality Tests = a selection procedure measure of the personality characteristics of applicants, related to future job performance • Personality tests typically measure 1 to 5 personality dimensions: extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience

  34. Advantages of Personality Tests • Can result in lower turnover if applicants are selected for traits that are highly correlated with employees who have high longevity within the organisation • Can reveal more information about an applicant’s abilities and interests • Can identify interpersonal traits that may be needed for certain jobs

  35. Disadvantages of Personality Tests • Difficult to measure personality traits that may not be well defined • Responses may be biased by the applicant’s desire to frame answers in a way they feel would improve their chances of selection • Lack of evidence to support the validity of the use of personality tests

  36. Interviews • Interviews = a selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of the applicants’ oral responses to questions posed

  37. Advantages of Interviews • Useful for determining if the applicant has the necessary communication or social skills for the job • Can assess the applicant’s job knowledge • Can be used for selection amongst equally qualified applicants • Enables the supervisor and/or co-workers to determine if there is compatibility between the applicant and the employees • Allows the applicant to ask questions which may reveal additional information useful for making a selection decision

  38. Disadvantages of Interviews • Subjective evaluations are made • Decisions tend to be made within the first few minutes of the interview with the remainder used to validate or justify the original decision • Interviewers form stereotypes concerning the characteristics required for a certain job • Research has shown minorities again are disproportionately selected • Negative information seems to be given more weight • Not as reliable as tests

  39. Training and Development

  40. Training Process

  41. Assessing Training Needs A detailed analysis of a job to identify the skills required, so that an appropriate training programme can be instituted Careful study of competency level to identify a deficiency and then correct it with a training programme, or some other development intervention

  42. Enhance Training Effectiveness

  43. Enhance Training Effectiveness • At the start of training, provide the trainees with a bird’s-eye view of the material to be presented. Knowing the overall picture facilitates learning • Use a variety of familiar examples when presenting material • Organise the material so that it is presented in a logical manner and meaningful units • Try to use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees • Use as many visual aids as possible

  44. Enhance Training Effectiveness • Maximise similarity between the training situation and the work situation • Provide adequate training practice • Identify each feature of the step in the process

  45. Enhance Training Effectiveness • People learn best by doing. Try to provide as much realistic practice as possible • Trainees learn best when correct responses on their part are immediately reinforced • Trainees learn best when they learn at their own pace. If possible, let trainees pace themselves

  46. Type of Training Programme

  47. Type of Training Programme

  48. Evaluation of Training Effectiveness

  49. Evaluation of Training Effectiveness Evaluate trainees’ reactions to the programme. Did they like it? Did they think it worthwhile? Test the trainees to determine if they learned the principles, skills and facts they needed to learn

  50. Evaluation of Training Effectiveness Ask whether the trainees’ behaviour on the job changed because of the training programme What final results were achieved in terms of the training objectives previously set?