Research Design & EBM. Ravi Kant MS, DNB, FAMS, FRCS (Edin), FRCS (Glasg), FRCS (Engl.), FRCS (Irel.), FACS, FICS, FAIS Professor of Surgery. Science. Intelligent Hypothesis Experiments & analysis of results prove that hypothesis is correct. Replicable universally= Most Important.
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MS, DNB, FAMS, FRCS (Edin), FRCS (Glasg), FRCS (Engl.), FRCS (Irel.), FACS, FICS, FAIS
Professor of Surgery
analyzing past events
Measurements mode on a single occasion, not looking at whole population but selecting small similar group & expanding results
Includes control group with no treatment
= GOLD STANDARD
A medical condition is analyzed systematically using hard, objective end point such as death or amputation.
Data come from patient narratives, and the psychosocial impact of the disease and its treatment are analyzed, for example narratives of breast cancer.
An incorrect sample size is probably the most frequent reason for research to be invalid.
Never forget that more patients will need to be randomized than the final sample size to take into account patients who die, drop out or are lost to follow up.
The observers or recorders who do not know which treatment has been used.
Neither patient nor researcher is aware of which therapy has been used until after study has finished, & these are the best randomized studies.
• http://www.poems.msu.edu/infomastery: • http://www.hsl.unc.edu/services/tutorials/ebm/welcome.htm: • http://www.uic.edu/depts/lib/lhsp/resources/ebm.shtml:.• http://library.ncahec.net/ebm/pages/index.htm:
For example, the 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows:
Hedau S, Jain N, Husain SA, Mandal AK, Ray G, Shahid M, Kant R, Gupta V, Shukla NK, Deo SS, & Das BC. Novel germ line mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1, BRCA2 and p53 gene in breast cancer patients from India. Breast Cancer Research Treat 2004 Nov, 88(2):177-86.
Evidence-base study is a move to find out the best ways of managing patients using clinical evidence from collected studies.
Collecting published evidence together and analyzing it often requires review of multiple randomized trials.
These meta-analysis involve complex statistical analysis designed to interpret multiple findings and synthesize the results of multiple studies.