Research Methods & Design in Psychology. Lecture 2 Survey Design 2 Lecturer: James Neill. Overview. Survey construction - nuts & nolts Sampling Ethics Levels of measurement Measurement error. What is a Survey?. A standardised stimulus A measuring instrument
Survey Design 2
Lecturer: James Neill
Objective: How times during 2000 did you visit a G.P.?
Subjective: Think about the visits you made to a G.P. during 2000. How well did you understand the medical advice you received?perfectly very well reasonably poorly not at all
What are the main issues you are currently facing in your life?
How many hours did you spend studying this week? _________
What are the main issues you are currently facing in your life? (please all that apply)
other (please specify)
How many hours did you spend studying this week?
less than 5 hours
> 5 to 10 hours
> 10 to 20 hours
more than 20 hours
Pick a number from the scale to show how much you agree or disagree with each statement:
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree neutral agree strongly
1 2 3 4 5
strongly agree neutral disagree strongly
How would you rate your enjoyment of the movie you just saw? Mark with a cross (X)
not enjoyable very enjoyable
What is your view of smoking?
Tick to show your opinion.
Bad ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ Good
Strong ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ Weak
Masculine ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ Feminine
Unattractive ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ Attractive
Passive ___:___:___:___:___:___:___ Active
Point to the face that shows how you feel about what happened to the toy.
Over the past month, how often have you argued with your intimate partner?
1. All the time
2. Fairly often
5. Doesn’t apply to me at the moment
General aim: Maximise sensitivity (i.e. more options)
Maximise reliability (i.e. less options)
How many measurement options?
EXTREMELY POSITIVE EXTREMELY NEGATIVE
GOOD NOT GOOD
GOOD FAIR POOR
VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR POOR
EXCELLENT VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR POOR
“Capital punishment should be reintroduced for serious crimes”
1 = Agree 2 = Disagree
1 = Very, Very Strongly Agree 7 = Slightly Disagree
2 = Very Strongly Agree 8 = Disagree
3 = Strongly Agree 9 = Strongly Disagree
4 = Agree 10 = V. Strongly Disagree
5 = Slightly Agree 11 = V, V Strongly Disagree
6 = Neutral
“Sampling is the process of selecting units (e.g., people, organizations) from a population of interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize our results back to the population from which they were chosen.”
- Trochim, 2002
(usually more for ‘emotional closeness’ than sex)
Sent to a variety of women’s groups - feminist organisations, church groups, garden clubs, etc.
4,500 replied(4.5% return rate)
“We get pretty nervous if respondents in our survey go under 70%. Respondents to surveys differ from nonrespondents in one important way: they go to the trouble of filling out what in this case was a very long, complicated, and personal questionnaire.”- Regina Herzog, University of Michigan Institute for Social Research
Levels of measurement = type of data
Each level has the properties of the preceeding levels, plus something more!
e.g. male = 1, female = 2
e.g. in a race, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.
e.g. temperature (degrees C)
e.g. height, age
different analytical proceduresare used for different levels of data
More powerful statistics can be applied to higher levels
categorical & nominal -> non-parametric
interval & ratio-> parametric
= procedures which estimate PARAMETERS of a population, usually based on the normal distribution
= procedures which do not rely on estimates of population PARAMETERS
parametric statistics are more powerful
but are also more sensitive to violations of assumptions
= true score + measurement error
= true score + systematic error + random error
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