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Chapter 2: Before the First global age

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Chapter 2: Before the First global age

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  1. Chapter 2: Before the First global age

  2. Section 1 The first civilizations of the americas

  3. Geologist believe the first people to come to the Americas, they did so using a land bridge made of glaciers. • Glaciers- Thick sheets of ice • Hunters following large animal herds • Over a thousand years these groups spread out over North, Central, and South America The First Civilizations of the Americas

  4. The end of the ice age brought new challenges • Large animals died out • Adapted by hunting smaller animals • Gathering wild berries, nuts, grains, and fish • The people of Central America learned how to farm • Corn • Squash • beans First Civilization Cont..

  5. Farming methods improved • More food= population growth+ permanent villages • Surplus- extra of something • With a surplus cities soon developed • Olmecs were the earliest known American civilization. (low lands of the Gulf of Mexico) • Supplied other cities with food • Studied stars and created an accurate calendar Olmec civilization

  6. The Mayas • Rainforest in Mexico and Guatemala • Farmed corn, squash, beans • Mayan Social Classes

  7. Priest studied sun, moon, and stars in order to know exactly when to honor the many gods that controlled the natural world • From close observations the priests made advancements in astronomy and math • Number line that included the concept of zero • 365-day calendar Around AD 900 the Mayas abandoned their cities The Mayas Advancements

  8. Settled around Lake Texcoco around the beginning of the 1300’s Built their capital(Tenochtitlan) on island in the middle of the lake. Causeways connected city to the mainland Casueway- raised roads made of packed earth The Aztecs

  9. Aztecs • Used many farming techniques • Used mud from cannels to fill in part of the lake • Piled mud on to reed mats that floated on the water. (chinampas) • Trade and conquests made the Aztecs a large and powerful nation

  10. Largest empire in the Americas Stretched 2,500 miles along the west coast of South America Cuzco capital of the Empire Very organized empire Stretches of many kinds of roads connected the are nation. The Incas

  11. To spread messages and a runner would use a quipu. • Quipu- a cord or string with knots that stood for quantities • Bags of grain • Number of soldiers • Skilled engineers • Massive stone temples and forts • Terraces for farming • Terraces- wide steps of land. Incas

  12. As the population of the Incas, Mayan, and Aztecs as well as other cities grew so did their culture thanks to trade • Culture- the entire way of life of a people • People of the Southwest • Hohokams:Present day Arizona. Used irrigation ditches to produce corn, squash, and beans in the desert • Anasazis: Four corner region( area where Colorado,Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona met) Farmed like the Hohokams had roads • Anaszis build homes with stone and adobe. The Spanish called them Pueblos • Mound Builders built large mounds for religious ceremonies and were farmers Early Culture of the Americas

  13. Section 3 Native American Cultures

  14. Hunting, Gathering, and Fishing • Small game • Berries&Nuts • Fish, Seals, Walrus, and Whales • Farming • Corn( improved size of crop) • Beans • Squash • Trade • Traded to get items not found in the Indians own region • Not only were goods traded so were ideas by diffusion Culture areas of north america

  15. Climate + Natural Recourses=Culture • Animals hunted • Crops grown • Clothing worn • Shelters built • In harsh climates the Indians traveled in small hunting nomadic tribes Climate, recourses, and culture

  16. Inuits lived in the frozen and icy treeless plain of the Artic region • Limited resources: driftwood, seals(oils and skins) • Short summers( collected driftwood from the shore, which were used for shelter and tools • Lived in pit homes • Oil from seals kept them warm • Utes and Shoshones lived in the cold dry environment of the Plateau region • Resources: hardy plants, moutain sheep, rabbits, pine nuts, and roots • Little possessions besides digging sticks, baskets, tools and weapons Cultures of the far north and plateau regions

  17. Milder climate • Abundant food supply: fish, small game, hardy plants • Used forest for houses and canoes • Permanent villages • Families gained status by how much they owned • Held potlatch dinners to show off wealth • Lasted many days • Gave away gifts( more given away the more respect it earned) Cultures of the Northwest

  18. Cultures of the southeast • Natchez one of many • Had a 13 month calendar(named after food or animal harvested or hunted during that month • Year begain in March( Lunar month) • Deer, Strawberry, Little Corn, Watermelon, Peach, Mulberry, Great Corn, Turkey, Bison, Bear, Cold Meal, Chestnut, Nut • The ruler of the Natchez was known as the Great Sun. Treated as a god. • Marriage laws ensured that membership in each class kept changing. • This ensured that no one family could control the title of Great Sun forever.

  19. Respect for nature Special Ceremonies • Close bond to plants, animals, and forces of nature • Prayers and ceremonies were to keep balance between people and nature • Believe world was full of unseen forces and spirits that were thought to act and feel like humans • Farming tribes had ceremonies to ensure good rainfall. • Southwest tribes honored the Kachinas spirits hoping to bring a good harvest • Southeast tribes held Green Corn Ceremonies when the corn rippened. Brought an end to one year and the beginning of a new one. Shared beliefs

  20. Eastern Woodlands (present day New York state.) “People of the Long House” • 150 ft long and 20 feet wide • 12 or more families lived in one house • Woman owned all property of the household and were in charge of planting and harvesting • Had political power (chose the clan leader) • Five Nations • Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga,Oneida, Cayuga • Formed the League of the Iroquois to stop the fighting between the 5 groups. • Sachems( 50 women) made all the decisions for the League Iroquois Confederacy

  21. Section 3 Trade Networks of Africa and Asia

  22. Arab merchants played a large role in the growing trade in the Middle East. The Middle East became a major crossroads of the world. Growth of trade also allowed for the growth of Islam. Muhammad was the founder of Islam. Followers of Islam are called Muslims The Quran is the Sacred book The Muslim world

  23. Muhammad won many followers Muhammad died in 632 After his death Islam spread rapidly across North Africa, Spain, Persia, and India Every Muslim was expected to make a pilgrimage to Mecca. Rise and Spread of Islam

  24. Muslim merchants traded across vast areas Had expert knowledge of wind and weather in the Indian Ocean. Muslim also used overland routes using the silk road that connected the Middle East with China. The Silk Road was dangerous so the merchants used caravans for safety. Merchants sold porcelain from China, Cloth from India, ivory from Africa, and spices from Southeat Asia. Muslim trade routes

  25. Trade allowed for small villages to turn into busy trading centers. Africa trading states traded gold, hardwoods and ivory to Asia and India. Wealth from trade helped East African rulers build strong city-states. Many of these rulers became Muslims African culture blended with Muslim culture. African trading states and cultures

  26. The savanna became rich trading kingdoms. Timbuktu was one of the major trading centers for the kingdom of Mali and Songhai Just like in East Africa, West Africa also adopted Islam. African trading states and cultures

  27. Trading center became rich and powerful. Cities on the outside of the kingdoms where they made a living by herding, fishing, or farming. Family was very important to the African culture. Most people lived in extended families (grand parents, parents, children, and some times aunts, uncles and cousins.) Kinship linked many families together. Village and family life

  28. China had a central power centered on the Emperor. Chinese rulers were weary of outsiders and were very isolated. Chinese believed they were the center of the Earth and sole source of civilization. 1405 Emperor Zheng He was eager to trade. Chinese voyages of trade and exploration

  29. Zheng He’s fleet numbered 300. 1405-1433 made 7 voyages to Southeast Asia, India, Middle East, and East Africa. Traded ended because Zheng He didn’t think the outside world had nothing to offer China. What would have happened if China would have taken longer trips and hit the Americas? The great treasure fleet

  30. Section 4 Tradition and change in europe

  31. Jewish Christian • Jews were known as Israelites. • Believed in one God. • History and laws are recorded in the Torah • Every Jew must follow the Ten Commandments and other law without question. • No one was above God • Persecuted • Believed in one God • Followed Ten Commandments and teachings of Jesus. • Believed all people were equal and all could achieve salvation. • Persecuted by Roman Empire. • Set up missionaries to spread the word of Jesus across Europe. Jewish and Christian traditions

  32. Greek tradition Roman tradition • Valued Human reason • Important contribution to science and math. • Geometry • Pioneered idea of atoms • Tried to diagnose disease using scientific method. • Lived in small city-states • Some allowed a monarch ruled each city-state • Some developed a direct democracy (Ancient Athens) • Athenian government allowed all people to attend assembly and make laws. • Only free men of parents born in Athens were citizens. • Woman, slaves, and men from other city –states were not citizens • A few smallcity-states became Rome. • Contributions to law and governement • 509 BC Rome overthrew their king and set up a republic. • As Rome expanded the republic suffered and military leaders seized power( Julius Ceasar followed my Octavian) • Rome lasted 500 years. • Spread its ideas that everyone was equal before the law.(Innocent until proven guilty) • Set up rules about using evidence in court Greek and roman traditions

  33. Middle ages A.D. 500-1400 • Kings and Queens ruled and divided land among nobles in a system known as feudalism. • Life revolved around the manor which might include many villages. • Self-sufficient • Peasants had a hard life • Roman Catholic Church was the most powerful force. • Owned large amount of land • Clergy were the only ones who could read and write. • The Crusades changed Europe • Wars fought to by Christians against Muslims to control the Holy Land. • Lasted 200 years • Failed to control Holy Land • Trade grew because of the Crusades • Sailing skills imporved • Magnetic compass • Astrolabe

  34. Increased trade made Europeans eager to learn more about the outside world. • New books began to be produced thanks to new invention by Johannes Gutenberg called the printing press. • Art • Medicine • Astronomy • Chemistry • Renaissance means rebirth . Lasted from 1300-1600 • More trade increased wealth and rulers wanted to increase their power. • European rulers began to look for new trade routes to Asia to avoid Muslim and Italian merchants. • Portugal became early leaders. • Vasco de Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa. • Found a route to the East Indies and Southeast Asia. Renaissance expands horizons