Chapter 16 Global Climate Change. Mr. Manskopf Notes also available at http://www.manskopf.com. Statement: “It has been so hot this summer, must be that global warming”. Goals for Chapter 16. What is climate? What factors determine climate? What causes seasonal changes?
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Chapter 16Global Climate Change Mr. Manskopf Notes also available at http://www.manskopf.com
Statement: “It has been so hot this summer, must be that global warming”
Goals for Chapter 16 • What is climate? • What factors determine climate? • What causes seasonal changes? • What is the ozone layer and how is it being altered? • Describe how human actions are changing the make up of the Earth’s atmosphere and what are the potential consequence of that.
Section: Climate and Seasons GOALS: • Explain the difference between weather and climate. • Identify four factors that determine climate. • Explain why different parts of the Earth have different climates. • Explain what causes seasons.
Weather • State of the atmosphere at any one time in a region • What is today’s weather like? • What was the weather like last summer? • What was the weather on October 21st
Climate Climate: is the long-term average weather conditions in an area • Seattle, Washington • Phoenix, Arizona • San Diego, Calif. • Portland, Maine
Climate Factors 1) Latitude: the distance north or south from the equator impacts a regions climate • What is 0o, 90o? • What is Audubon’s latitude?
Latitude Greenland at noon in the summer
Climate Factors 2) Atmospheric Circulation: the direction the wind comes from impacts climate • Which way generally does wind blow across the U.S.?
Atmospheric Circulation Prevailing Winds: winds that blow predominantly in one direction • Westerlies • Trade Winds • Polar Easterlies
Climate Factors 3) Ocean Circulation Patterns: Oceans carry heat from the equator or cool waters from the poles • Surface currents caused by winds
Climate Factors 4) Topography: the shape of the land influences climate greatly • Mountains can impact temperature and precipitation patterns
When do we get the most direct sunlight? Noon Sunlight
When do we get the most indirect sunlight? Noon sunlight
When is the daylight hours longest/shortest? December 21st at 7 PM EST: WHY DOES IT LOOK LIKE THIS
What 2 days of the year does it look like this: equal day and not all around the globe?
Seasons Seasons: caused by the fact that Earth’s axis is tilted at 23.5o.
Section Review • Explain the difference between weather and climate. • Identify four factors that determine climate. • Explain why different parts of the Earth have different climates. • Explain what causes seasons.
Section : Global Warming GOALS: • Explain how the greenhouse effect works • Describe why carbon dioxide is important in the atmosphere, but why scientists find it troubling that levels are rising • Analyze what a warmer world might look like • DO NOT CONFUSE OZONE DEPLETION WITH GLOBAL WARMING!!!
Has Earth’s Climate Always Been Like Today’s? • How is it possible that you can find shark teeth 20 miles from the beach in NJ? • How is it possible that you find fossils of Palm Trees in parts of Canada? • Today, global average temp = 59oF
Has Earth’s Climate Always Been Like Today’s? Over past 4.7 billion years climate has changed by • Volcanic eruptions • Changes in solar output • Continents moving • Meteorites • Natural variations in CO2 Some changes slow, some quickly
Why does a greenhouse stay warm in the winter? Why does the inside of the car heat up quickly on a sunny day?
Greenhouse Effect • Naturally occurring process in the atmosphere where gases trap in heat. • Like a blanket covering planet • Known about for over a century • Without it Earth would be COLD
Greenhouse Gases • Major greenhouse gases include • Carbon Dioxide • Water Vapor • Methane • CFCs • All act to trap in heat
Measuring CO2Since 1958 in Mauna Loa Hawaii What does this data show? What trends does it show? Why does it go up and down each year?
CO2 rates rising quickly 1764 --- 276 ppm 1995 --- 360 ppm 2010 --- 390 ppm Chemist Charles Keeling’s CO2 measurements Why measure here?
Rising CO2 Levels • Never 390 ppm in last 420,000 years (possibly 20 million) • Continue to rise rapidly • Most CO2 in atmosphere is coming from burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas • WHAT DOES THAT MEAN FOR THE FUTURE?
Where is the CO2 Coming From? 42% Coal powerplants 24% transportation 20% industrial processes 14% residential and commercial usages Exhale, drive, turn on light, burn log in fire 1 gallon of gas burned equals 20 pounds of CO2
Where is the CO2 Coming From? 4.6% of the world’s population, yet 24% of emissions of CO2 From just U.S. coal burning exceeds 146 other nations with 3/4th of world population Per capita yearly 500 tons