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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: A Global Concern, 5th edition. William P. Cunningham University of Minnesota Barbara Woodworth Saigo Saiwood Biology Resources. CHAPTER 1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES. What is Environmental Science?. Environment Environmental Science

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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: A Global Concern, 5th edition


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    1. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: A Global Concern, 5th edition William P. Cunningham University of Minnesota Barbara Woodworth Saigo Saiwood Biology Resources

    2. CHAPTER 1ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES

    3. What is Environmental Science? • Environment • Environmental Science • History of Environmental Science • utilitarian conservation • altruistic preservation

    4. CURRENT CONDITIONS • Planet Earth • Environmental Dilemmas • population • food shortages • energy • pollution

    5. A DIVIDED WORLD • Rich vs. Poor • North vs. South • Developed countries vs. undeveloped countries • First, Second, Third and Fourth World Countries

    6. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT • Human Development Index • Developmental Discrepancies • basic social services • education • health care • agrarian reform • employment • civil rights • sustainable resource use • Sustainable Development

    7. ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVES • Neo-Malthusian • Technological optimists/Promethean environmentalism • “Cornucopian Fallacy” • Lessons from the Past

    8. CHAPTER 2TOOLS FOR BUILDING A BETTER WORLD

    9. Environmental Ethics and Philosophy • Universal Ethical Principles • Relativists • Nihilists • Utilitarians • Modernism & Postmodernism

    10. Values, Rights & Obligations • Morals • Animal Rights • Inherent Value • Instrumental Value

    11. Worldviews and Ethical Perspectives • Domination • Stewardship • Biocentrism • Ecofeminism

    12. Environmental Justice • Environmental racism • Toxic colonialism • Is Nature fragile or resilient?

    13. Science as a Way of Knowing • Scientific Method • Hypotheses Testing • Indirect Scientific Evidence • Technology and Progress • Appropriate Technology

    14. CHAPTER 3MATTER, ENERGY, AND LIFE

    15. From Atoms to Cells • Atoms • ions • atomic number • Molecules • compound • Organic Compounds • carbon • Cells

    16. Energy Types and Qualities • Kinetic Energy • heat • temperature • Potential Energy • Chemical Energy • Conservation of Matter • Thermodynamics • 1st law • 2nd law

    17. Energy for Life • Solar Energy • Photosynthesis • Chlorophyll • cellular respiration

    18. From Species to Ecosystems • Population • Communities • biological community • Ecosystems

    19. Food Chains • Productivity/biomass • Food chain/food web • Trophic level • producers • consumers • Organisms • herbivores • carnivores • omnivores

    20. Material Cycles and Life Processes • Carbon Cycle • Nitrogen Cycle • Phosphorus Cycle • Sulfur Cycle

    21. CHAPTER 4BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES AND SPECIES INTERACTION

    22. Critical Factors, Who Lives Where? • Temperature • Moisture levels • Nutrient supply • Soil chemistry • Water chemistry

    23. Natural Selection • Adaptation • Evolution • HABITAT

    24. SPECIES INTERACTIONS AND COMMUNITY DYNAMICS

    25. Predation • Predators • parasites • Pathogens • Prey

    26. Competition • Intraspecific competition • Interspecific competition • Territoriality

    27. Symbiosis • Commensalism • Mutualism

    28. Community Properties • Productivity • Abundance and Diversity • Complexity and Connectedness • Resilience and Stability • Structure • Edges and Boundaries

    29. Ecological Succession • Primary Succession • Secondary Succession • Pioneer Species • Ecological Development • Climax Community • Introduced Species and Community Change

    30. CHAPTER 5BIOMES, LANDSCAPES, RESOTRATION AND MANAGEMENT

    31. Terrestrial Biomes • Deserts • Grasslands • Prairies • Savannas • Tundra • Conifer Forests • Evergreen Forests • Tropical Forests • Tropical Seasonal Forests

    32. Aquatic Ecosystems • Freshwater and Saline Ecosystems • Estuaries and Wetlands • Shorelines and Barrier Islands • Coral reefs

    33. Landscape Ecology • Patchiness & Heterogeneity • Landscape Dynamics

    34. Restoration Ecology • Rehabilitation • Remediation • Reclamation • Re-creation • Nature, self-healing

    35. CHAPTER 6POPULATION DYNAMICS

    36. Population Growth • Exponential Growth • Geometric Growth • Arithmetic Growth • J Curve

    37. Population Oscillations and Irruptive Growth • Dieback • Overshoot • Irruptive or Malthusian growth

    38. Growth to a Stable Population • Logistic growth • Environmental resistance

    39. Strategies of Population Growth • Malthusian Strategies • Logistic Strategies

    40. Factors affecting Population • Natality, Fecundity, and Fertility • Immigration • Mortality and survivorship • Age Structure • Emigration • Education

    41. Factors Affecting Birth and Fertility Rates • Education/affluence • Importance of children to family labor force • Urbanization • Cost - raising and educating children • Education & Employment opportunity - women • Infant mortality rate • Average marriage age • Availability - pension • Birth control • Religious beliefs, tradition and culture

    42. Factors Affecting Death Rate • Nutrition • Fewer infant deaths and increased longevity • Health and technology

    43. Teen Pregnancy in the USA • Migration • Immigration

    44. Population Age Structure • Ways of classifying • Pre-reproductive age • Reproductive age • Post-reproductive age

    45. Solutions Influencing Population • Controlling Migration • Reducing Birth Rates • Economic development • Family planning • Economic rewards • Empowering women • Population Control Studies • India • China

    46. Population Distribution • Urbanization and Growth • The future is urban • Hyper-urbanization - LDCs • The United States and other MDC’s • Spatial patterns of development

    47. CHAPTER 7HUMAN POPULATIONS

    48. Population Growth • Birth Rates • Over-population • Technology and Ingenuity

    49. Limits to Population Growth • Malthusian checks • Karl Marx • Neo-Malthusian • Technology solutions? • Can More people be Beneficial?

    50. Human Demography • Fertility • Birthrate • Zero population growth • Mortality and death rates • Population growth rates • Life span and life expectancy • dependency ratio • Emigration and Immigration