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Chapter 7. Design of Work Systems. Job Design. Job design involves specifying the content and methods of job What will be done Who will do the job How the job will bob will be done Where the job will be done Ergonomics--incorporating human factors into the design of a product or process

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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Design of Work Systems

Job design
Job Design

  • Job designinvolves specifying the content and methods of job

    • What will be done

    • Who will do the job

    • How the job will bob will be done

    • Where the job will be done

    • Ergonomics--incorporating human factors into the design of a product or process

  • Goals

    • Productivity

    • Safety

    • Quality of work life

Design of work systems
Design of Work Systems

  • Specialization

  • Behavioral Approaches to Job Design

  • Teams

  • Methods Analysis

  • Motions Study

  • Working conditions

Job design success
Job Design Success

Successful Job Design must be:

  • Carried out by experienced personnel with the necessary training and background

  • Consistent with the goals of the organization

  • In written form

  • Understood and agreed to by both management and employees

Specialization in business advantages






1. Simplifies training


Low education and

skill requirements

2. High productivity



3. Low wage costs



Little mental effort


Specialization in Business: Advantages






1. Monotonous work


Difficult to motivate


2. Limited opportunities

for advancement

2. Worker dissatisfaction,

possibly resulting in

3. Little control over work

absenteeism, high

4. Little opportunity for

turnover, disruptive


tactics, poor attention

to quality


Behavioral approaches to job design
Behavioral Approaches to Job Design

  • Ways of overcoming worker boredom

  • Job Enlargement

    • Giving a worker a larger portion of the total task by horizontal loading

  • Job Rotation

    • Workers periodically exchange jobs

  • Job Enrichment

    • Increasing responsibility for planning and coordination tasks, by vertical loading


  • What makes people work

  • People can be motivated by:

    • Money

    • Social needs

    • Self-fulfillment

    • Sense of accomplishment

    • Fear

Self directed teams
Self-Directed Teams

  • Groups empowered to make limited changes in their work processes

  • Based on the assumption that no one knows more about a process than the workers

  • Can lead to:

    • Higher productivity

    • Higher quality

    • Greater worker satisfaction

    • Lower turnover

Methods analysis
Methods Analysis

  • Analyzing how a job is done

  • The need for methods analysis can come from a number of different sources:

  • Changes in tools and equipment

  • Changes in product designor new products

  • Changes in materials or procedures

  • Regulations or contractual issues

  • Other factors (e.g. accidents, quality problems, productivity)

Methods analysis1
Methods Analysis

  • Can be used on new or existing jobs

  • Procedure:

    • Identify the operation to be studied and gather facts

    • Discuss the job with supervisor and operator

    • Study and document current/proposed method

    • Analyze the job

    • Propose new methods

    • Install new methods

    • Follow-up to ensure results have been achieved

Motion study
Motion Study

Motion study is the systematic

study of the human motions used

to perform an operation in order to improve ergonomics, safety, and efficiency.

Motion study techniques
Motion Study Techniques

  • Analysis of therbligs - basic elemental motions into which a job can be broken down

  • Micromotion study - use of motion pictures and slow motion to study motions that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze

  • Charts

Developing work methods
Developing Work Methods

  • Eliminate unnecessary motions

  • Combine activities

  • Reduce fatigue

  • Improve the arrangement of the workplace

  • Improve the design of tools and equipment

Working conditions
Working Conditions

  • Environmental conditions that impact worker performance, safety, and productivity

Working conditions cont d

Noise & Vibration

Work Breaks


Causes of Accidents

Working Conditions (cont’d)

Work measurement
Work Measurement

  • Determining how long it should take to do a job

  • Critical for manpower planning, estimating labor costs, scheduling, budgeting, etc.

  • Methods:

    • Stopwatch Time Study

    • Standard Elemental Times

    • Predetermined Time Standards

    • Work Sampling


  • Two most basic categories of compensation:

    • Time based

    • Output based

  • Other subcategories:

    • Individual Incentive Plans

    • Group Incentive Plans

    • Knowledge-Based Pay System

    • Management Compensation

Form of incentive plan
Form of Incentive Plan

  • Accurate

  • Easy to apply

  • Consistent

  • Easy to understand

  • Fair