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Chapter 7 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 7

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  1. Chapter 7 Design of Work Systems

  2. Job Design • Job designinvolves specifying the content and methods of job • What will be done • Who will do the job • How the job will bob will be done • Where the job will be done • Ergonomics--incorporating human factors into the design of a product or process • Goals • Productivity • Safety • Quality of work life

  3. Design of Work Systems • Specialization • Behavioral Approaches to Job Design • Teams • Methods Analysis • Motions Study • Working conditions

  4. Job Design Success Successful Job Design must be: • Carried out by experienced personnel with the necessary training and background • Consistent with the goals of the organization • In written form • Understood and agreed to by both management and employees

  5. For Management: For Labor: . 1. Simplifies training 1 Low education and skill requirements 2. High productivity 2. Minimum 3. Low wage costs responsibilities 3. Little mental effort needed Specialization in Business: Advantages

  6. For Management: For Labor: 1. Monotonous work 1. Difficult to motivate quality 2. Limited opportunities for advancement 2. Worker dissatisfaction, possibly resulting in 3. Little control over work absenteeism, high 4. Little opportunity for turnover, disruptive self-fulfillment tactics, poor attention to quality Disadvantages

  7. Behavioral Approaches to Job Design • Ways of overcoming worker boredom • Job Enlargement • Giving a worker a larger portion of the total task by horizontal loading • Job Rotation • Workers periodically exchange jobs • Job Enrichment • Increasing responsibility for planning and coordination tasks, by vertical loading

  8. Motivation • What makes people work • People can be motivated by: • Money • Social needs • Self-fulfillment • Sense of accomplishment • Fear

  9. Self-Directed Teams • Groups empowered to make limited changes in their work processes • Based on the assumption that no one knows more about a process than the workers • Can lead to: • Higher productivity • Higher quality • Greater worker satisfaction • Lower turnover

  10. Methods Analysis • Analyzing how a job is done • The need for methods analysis can come from a number of different sources: • Changes in tools and equipment • Changes in product designor new products • Changes in materials or procedures • Regulations or contractual issues • Other factors (e.g. accidents, quality problems, productivity)

  11. Methods Analysis • Can be used on new or existing jobs • Procedure: • Identify the operation to be studied and gather facts • Discuss the job with supervisor and operator • Study and document current/proposed method • Analyze the job • Propose new methods • Install new methods • Follow-up to ensure results have been achieved

  12. Motion Study Motion study is the systematic study of the human motions used to perform an operation in order to improve ergonomics, safety, and efficiency.

  13. Motion Study Techniques • Analysis of therbligs - basic elemental motions into which a job can be broken down • Micromotion study - use of motion pictures and slow motion to study motions that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze • Charts

  14. Developing Work Methods • Eliminate unnecessary motions • Combine activities • Reduce fatigue • Improve the arrangement of the workplace • Improve the design of tools and equipment

  15. Working Conditions • Environmental conditions that impact worker performance, safety, and productivity

  16. Working Conditions

  17. Noise & Vibration Work Breaks Safety Causes of Accidents Working Conditions (cont’d)

  18. Work Measurement • Determining how long it should take to do a job • Critical for manpower planning, estimating labor costs, scheduling, budgeting, etc. • Methods: • Stopwatch Time Study • Standard Elemental Times • Predetermined Time Standards • Work Sampling

  19. Compensation • Two most basic categories of compensation: • Time based • Output based • Other subcategories: • Individual Incentive Plans • Group Incentive Plans • Knowledge-Based Pay System • Management Compensation

  20. Form of Incentive Plan • Accurate • Easy to apply • Consistent • Easy to understand • Fair