Religion Key Issues Where are religions distributed? Why do religions have different distributions? Why do religions organize space in distinctive patterns? Why do territorial conflicts arise among religious groups?
“There has been more evil done in the name of god then ever good”- Coach Mike Blackman; Baptist Preacher
The Roots of Religion • Animism (Shamanism) -the belief that all objects, animals, and beings are “animated” or possess a spirit and a conscious life. Also called shamanism because of the prominence of a Shaman. • Such beliefs are common among hunter-gatherers. These were the first people • 10% of Africans follow such traditional ethnic religions. • These beliefs are losing ground to Christianity and Islam throughout Africa. Nigerian Shaman
Key Issue 1: Where are religions distributed? • There are 2 types of religions: • Universalizing- religions that attempt to be global and appeal to all people. • The 3 main universalizing religions are: • CHRISTIANITY- BUDDHISM-ISLAM • The other two main universalizing religions other than the above three are: • Sikhism 24 million followers, 21 of which are clustered in the Punjab region of India. • Bahá’í 7 million followers dispersed across the globe.
Diffusion of Universalizing Religions Each of the three main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth.
Universalizing Religions • Branches-(Large Fundamental Divisions in religion) • Catholic- Protestant- Greek Orthodox • Denominations (Groups within a branch) • Roman Catholic- Baptist- • Sects (Smaller groups that have broken away) • Ultra Catholic- Southern Baptist- Amish
CHRISTIANITY- 2 billion followers in N. and S. America, Europe, Australia, and some Asian and African countries. • 50% Roman Catholic, • 25% Protestant, • 10% Eastern Orthodox • 15% miscellaneous. • About 90% of the Western Hemisphere is Christian. • 95% Roman Catholic in Latin American • 50% Protestant in the U.S.
Universalizing Christianity • Origin: Jesus of Nazareth- 4BCE 29 CE • Off shoot of Judaism- Semitic Hearth (Israel) Prophet was seen as the messiah, Monotheistic- Bible • Diffusion: Expansion and Relocation • 2 Billion today- largest • 312 CE Rome Adopted it • Colonial Efforts • 90% of the western Hemisphere • Branches: • Roman Catholic- Largest Original piece 830 million • Hierarchal Religion- No real denominations • Vatican City- Rome- Autonomous • Protestant- 503 Million- 25% • Broken into denominations- Baptist, Methodist, Lutherans, Pentecostal- 15th century Reformation • Eastern Orthodox- 1054 CE- 192 million- 14 self governing Churches • Russian Orthodox is the largest- Constantinople- “Great Schism” • Cultural Landscape: • Cathedrals- Middle Ages • Baroque Church- Catholic • Plain Wooden Church- Protestant • Cemeteries
Diffusion of Christianity Christianity diffused from Palestine through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast and North Africa.
Christian Branches in Europe Protestant denominations, Catholicism, and Eastern Orthodoxy are dominant in different regions of Europe – a result of many historic interactions.
ISLAM- 1.3 billion followers in Middle East, Indonesia, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh. • Core of beliefs is based on the 5 pillars of faith: • There is no god worthy of worship other than the one God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God. • A Muslim must pray 5 times daily facing the city of Mecca. • A Muslim gives generously to charity, as an act of purification and growth. • A Muslim fasts during the month of Ramadan, as an act of self-purification. • If physically and financially able, a Muslim makes a pilgrimage to Mecca. • The two main branches of Islam are Sunni (83%) and Shiite (16%).
Universalizing Islam • Origin: Muhammad 600 CE • Medina, Saudi Arabia, 1.2 billion • Monotheistic- Quran • Diffusion: • Africa, Europe and Asia through Military Conquest • Led to the crusades and ongoing trouble in Africa • Mostly located in Asia and Africa • Branches: • Sunni- “Orthodox”- 85% Also in Bangladesh and Pakistan- Caliph of the Umayyad and Ottoman are elected “Ayatollah” • Shiite- Majority in Iran- Descendents from Muhammad • Cultural Landscape: • Mosque- four minarets- different from Christian churches • Geometric patterns- images banned • Mecca- Kaaba, Medina, Dome of the Rock
Islam • D • R • A • F • T • Daily Prayer • Ramadan • Alms • Faith • Travel to Mecca (Hajj)
The 14x46 displays are located on I-26 at mile-marker 125 and US 301N in Orangeburg
Prophet: Muhammad Holy Text: Koran Reading the Koran, Brunei • Islamic Calender • Begins in AD 622 when Muhammad was commanded to Mecca from Medina (Hijra). • Lunar calendar makes Ramadan move through the seasons (30 year cycle - 19 years with 354 days and 11 with 355).
Diffusion of Islam Origin – Mecca 613 a.d. Prophet’s death in 1632 Military expansion Combined with hierarchical diffusion (social) Created an Arab empire Trade as important as religion Culture, not just religion
Diffusion of Islam Islam diffused rapidly and widely from its area of origin in Arabia. It eventually stretched from southeast Asia to West Africa.
BUDDHISM- 365 million followers in China and S.E. Asia mainly. • Based on the 4 Noble Truths: • All living beings must endure suffering. • Suffering, which is caused by a desire to live, leads to reincarnation. • The goal of all existence is to escape from suffering and the endless cycle of reincarnation into Nirvana (a state of complete redemption), which is achieved through mental and moral self-purification. • Nirvana is attained through an Eightfold Path that stresses rightness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, and meditation. • The branches of Buddhism are Mahayana (56%), Theravada (38%), and Tantrayana (6%).
Universalizing Buddhism • Origin: Siddhartha Gautama- 644 BCE • Based off Hinduism • Indo-Gangetic Hearth- Indus and Ganges rivers • North East former India- Nepal • Diffusion: China, to Korea, Japan, Tibet along the silk road • Practically extinct in its mother country • 350 Million world wide • Primary Branches: • Theravada- 55% Monastic- Southeast Asia- Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia- god • Mahayana- 40% Meditation and Prayer- Teacher- Korea, Japan, Vietnam, China • Lamaism- Tibet- Combination- Dali Lama was exiled here by China • Zen- Japanese- Shinto and Buddhism • Cultural Landscape- • Pagoda • Bodhi Tree
Buddhism • B • E • E • N • N • Buddha • Enlightenment • Eightfold Path • Noble Truths • Nirvana
The perfect proportions of the Buddha’s body corresponds to the design of religious monuments. Its architecture developed from the pre-Buddhist Indian grave-mound. Under these mounds the saintly ascetic were buried; their bodies were seated on the ground and covered with earth. These dome-shaped graves, or tumuli, of the saints were regarded as holy places. And were destinations for pilgrimage for the devotional and places of practice for meditators.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=47CW9LU7yeE • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EAY2km3Oa0s
Diffusion of Buddhism Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and eventually China and Japan.
Buddhism Third major proselytizing religion No longer a major presence in the country of its origin
Karma - your past bad or good actions determine your progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.