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Cold War. 1945-1989. What, Who, When, Where, Why, How?. What is a Cold War? A war where two enemies don’t actually fight Who is involved? U.S. & U.S.S.R (Soviet Union) When? 1945-1989 Where? Around the world – Germany, Korea, Vietnam, Cuba… Why are we fighting?

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cold war

Cold War

1945-1989

what who when where why how
What, Who, When, Where, Why, How?
  • What is a Cold War?
    • A war where two enemies don’t actually fight
  • Who is involved?
    • U.S. & U.S.S.R (Soviet Union)
  • When?
    • 1945-1989
  • Where?
    • Around the world – Germany, Korea, Vietnam, Cuba…
  • Why are we fighting?
    • U.S. wanted to stop the spread of communism
  • How is the war fought?
    • Arms race – both sides build up their nuclear weapons
    • Back and forth threats
slide3

How Does It Begin?

Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin

yalta conference
Yalta Conference
  • Germany divided into 4 zones run by Allies
  • United Nations formed (50 nations)
  • Declaration of Liberated Europe

1. People of Europe can create their own government as long as it is not Nazi or fascist

2. U.S., Great Britain, & Russia will:

      • Establish peace in their countries
      • Provide aid to people who need it
      • Form temporary governments that represent democratic society & free elections
1948 berlin blockade
1948 Berlin Blockade
  • Truman wanted a united Germany
  • Soviet Union felt threatened by united Germany
  • Berlin caught in the middle of the unification
  • Stalin sent troops to block all traffic/supplies to Berlin from the rest of Germany
  • Berlin airlift – 10 months to prevent war
  • Stalin stopped in May 1949 but Germany divided
    • East Germany – Communist
    • West Germany – allied to U.S.
iron curtain churchill 1946
Iron Curtain – Churchill 1946
  • What was the term used to stop the spread of communism?

- Containment

  • How did the U.S. help stop the spread of communism?

- Truman Doctrine - Provide aid (money) to threatened countries (nonmilitary)

- Marshall Plan – U.S. gave $13 billion to help into Western Europe

build up alliances formed
Build Up & Alliances Formed
  • UN – United Nations, June 1945, 50 countries joined to settle international disputes & prevent future wars
  • NATO – 1949 - 10 European countries agreed to help if attacked by the Soviets
  • Warsaw Pact – 1955 – Soviets allied with Eastern European countries
  • NSC – 1950 – U.S. releases report vowing to stop spread of communism
  • 1949 – Mao Zedong –

China becomes communist

korean war 1950
Korean War 1950
  • North Korea remains communist & South Korea democratic
    • Demilitarized Zone – U.S. troops help protect
rivalry
Rivalry
  • 1956 – Egypt seizes Suez Canal & Europeans invade eventually U.S. & Soviets got them to pull out
  • Nov. 1956 – Hungarian students rebel against communist government & Soviet military crushes revolt; Eisenhower condemns actions, but doesn’t intervene
  • Geneva Summit – NATO leaders & Soviets agree to coexist – compete but NO war
rivalry continues
Rivalry Continues
  • Kennedy creates Peace Corps to provide economic relief to counteract appeal of communism
  • 1959 – Fidel Castro takes over Cuba and aligns with Soviets
  • April 1961 – Bay of Pigs – U.S. failed to spark uprising in Cuba
  • Aug. 1961 – Berlin Wall built
brink of nuclear war
Brink of Nuclear War
  • Oct. 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis
    • Spy planes saw Soviets building launch pad in Cuba
    • Kennedy sets up blockade
    • Threatens – if ship tries to break blockade he’d use nuclear weapons
    • 5 days later Soviets agreed

to leave Cuba & U.S.

would not invade

vietnam war 1941 1975
Vietnam War 1941-1975
  • Ho Chi Minh (communist) – defeated Japanese during WWII & afterwards French colonist
  • Geneva Accords – temporarily divide Vietnam into North & South and then unify after 1956 elections
  • 1955 – American supported Ngo Dinh Diem refused elections & cracked down on communism
  • 1959 – Communists set up the National Liberation Front (Vietcong) to begin war against Diem
  • Eisenhower sent money, Kennedy sent Special Forces
  • Gulf of Tonkin – Pres. Johnson sends troops in after alleged attack on U.S. ship
    • After years of fighting, large opposition to U.S. involvement in war
  • Years of fighting – April 1975 – South Vietnam surrenders to North
rivalry continues1
Rivalry Continues
  • Dec. 1979 – Soviets invade Afghanistan, Pres. Carter orders sanctions
impact on american culture
Impact on American Culture
  • Arms Race
    • Duck & Cover and Fallout Shelters
  • Red Scare
    • McCarthyism – accusations without proof
    • HUAC
    • Rosenbergs, Alger Hiss, Hollywood Ten
    • Blacklists
  • Space Race – Oct. 1957 Soviet Sputnik launched causes NASA program
peace attempts
Peace attempts
  • 1963 - Kennedy & Khrushchev agree to hot line between Moscow & Washington
  • 1963 - Treaty banning nuclear tests aboveground and underwater
  • 1971 – Nixon’s “Ping-Pong Diplomacy” – secret talks between U.S. & China forging closer ties
  • 1972 – Nixon’s Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) – restricted the number of certain types of nuclear missiles built by U.S. & Soviets
  • 1987 – Reagan & Gorbachev sign Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) – reduce number of nuclear weapons in arsenals
president s policies
President’s Policies
  • Eisenhower – Brinkmanship – “Domino Theory”
  • Kennedy – continues arms race, flexible response – used specially trained military groups to fight guerilla wars in nations fighting communism
  • Johnson – Vietnam War – stop spread of communism
  • Nixon –
    • Vietnamization – plan for South to take more active role & U.S. start to remove troops, but continued to bomb Cambodia and Laos
    • Détente – attempt to relax international tensions, needed a balance of power to make peace with Soviets
  • Ford – Continues detente
  • Carter – Human Rights activist – Cuba, Latin America, South Africa
  • Reagan – Rejected containment & détente
    • Military build up – “Star Wars” antimissile defense system
end of cold war
End of Cold War
  • 1985 – Mikhail Gorbachev commits to reforming Soviet government
  • 1990 – Bush & Gorbachev sign Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) – destroy existing nuclear weapons
  • Throughout Eastern Europe communist governments fell
  • Nov. 9, 1989 – Berlin Wall comes down & Germany is united
  • Dec. 25, 1991 – Yelstin outlawed Communist Party in Russia & Gorbachev announces end of Soviet Union
free democracy government private capitalism republicans communism 1 2 communist
Free –Democracy - Government – Private – CapitalismRepublicans – Communism – 1 – 2 - Communist
  • In the United States businesses are owned by _____________ citizens.
  • In the Soviet Union the ___________ owns the businesses.
  • There is only __ political party in the Soviet Union, it is the ________ party.
  • Americans have __ major political parties, the Democrats and the _________.
  • In America you can read about anything you want to because America has a _______ press.
  • The Russians live under a political and economic system called________________.
  • The Americans live under an economic system called__________.
  • Americans like to think of their country as being a ___________ because the majority rules in most cases.
  • Citizens in the Soviet Union are given their jobs by the _____________.
  • In the Soviet Union all the factories and companies are owned by the _____________.
the u s or the soviet union
The U.S. or The Soviet Union?
  • Free Elections
  • Communist
  • Everybody helps everyone else
  • Capitalist
  • No Elections – Or Fixed
  • Survival of the Fittest
  • Freedom of the Media
  • Democratic
  • Total Censorship
  • Dictatorship