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Chapter 7. Part 1. The First Administration. Constitution became law on June 21, 1788 George Washington is now elected our first president John Adams becomes our first vice president First inauguration on April 30, 1789 Washington developed the first cabinet.

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Part 1

the first administration
The First Administration
  • Constitution became law on June 21, 1788
  • George Washington is now elected our first president
  • John Adams becomes our first vice president
  • First inauguration on April 30, 1789
  • Washington developed the first cabinet
alexander hamilton s financial plan
Alexander Hamilton’s Financial Plan
  • United Stated has huge debt due to the war and poor government we stated with
  • Treasury was empty
  • Alexander was Secretary of the Treasury so he was put in charge of finding the solution
  • He developed a plan:
    • Pay off $4,000,000 debt to France and Netherlands
    • Pay back all money to people in states $44,000,000
    • Central government was take over state debt
    • Would issue bonds to raise money
  • Not a popular plan with congress, however got support and it passed
  • Hamilton also organized the National Bank of the U.S.
  • He set up a coin system that we still use today
  • He gave the country a sound financial foundation
chapter 71

Chapter 7

Part 2

the government s progress
The Government’s Progress
  • France declared war against England in 1793
  • France expect America to help them fight, however we were in no condition to be helping anyone at this point
  • George Washington had to decide whether to remain neutral, not take sides, or help France
  • He decided that we needed to take care of our problems first and remained neutral
trouble in the western lands
Trouble in the Western Lands
  • England and Spain continue to cause problems for America
  • They sold whiskey and firearms to the Indians
  • Settlers would claim Indian lands
  • Washington was trying to find a way to be peaceful with the Indians and British
  • John Jay went to London to discuss a treaty
  • English agreed to leave American soil, but left many issues unsolved
spain agrees to a treaty
Spain Agrees to a Treaty
  • Washington needed to find a way to make peace with Spain and gain access to New Orleans and the Mississippi River
  • Spain agreed to free navigation of the Mississippi River, which opened the port at New Orleans
  • Florida was completely turned over to the United States
george washington the first president 1789 1797
George Washington, The First President (1789-1797)
  • President Washington was asked to serve a second term as President, he accepted
  • Two second political parties began to emerge by the end of his second term
  • Washington refused to serve a third term, he wanted to return to his home in Virginia
  • He died two years later
  • The contributions that he made were of the most unique importance:
    • He had to lead with no example to follow
    • He was settling a new nation with all of its problems
    • Put the country on its feet politically and financially
    • Kept the nation out of further wars
  • Known as the “Father of His Country”
the two party system
The Two-Party System
  • Alexander Hamilton’s plan brought about a second political party
  • Many people didn’t agree with his plan
  • Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were among these and they started the democratic-republican party
  • This party supported a strong state government
  • While the Federalist party supported a stronger central government
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Chapter 7

Part 3

the second president
The Second President
  • John Adams
    • Very stubborn person that supported a strong central government
    • Thomas Jefferson was his vice president
  • So now we have a Federalist for president and a democratic-republican for vice president
problems with the french
Problems with the French
  • Several European countries were at war with France when John Adams took office in 1797
  • America still wanted to remain neutral
  • This angered France so they started taking over American vessels
  • So John Adams tried to work a deal out with France
  • They would stop attacking American ships, however wouldn’t pay for any damage already done
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Chapter 7

Part 4

the decline of the federalists
The Decline of the Federalists
  • John Adams was not a popular president
  • He was honest and loyal
  • Papers didn’t support his policies
  • Immigrants joined opposing party because they didn’t like him
the alien and sedition acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Federalists wanted to take control back so they passed the Alien and Sedition Acts
  • These acts:
    • Immigrants had to wait 14 years to become citizens
    • Immigrants could be put in jail or deported it they were found to be dangerous
    • It was determined a crime to speak, write, or print articles that are against the government
  • Democratic-Republicans felt that this was against the constitution and their freedom of speech
the election of 1800
The Election of 1800
  • This election was the first that was a real contest between the two parties
  • Federalists supported John Adams
  • Thomas Jefferson was the democratic-republican candidate
  • Jefferson appealed to small business owners and farmers
hamilton s influence
Hamilton’s Influence
  • Congress struggled to pick the vice president
  • Alexander Hamilton helped to decide the outcome, didn’t support either candidate however through Jefferson was the lesser of two evils
  • So he persuaded others to follow him and that is when Thomas Jefferson became president and Aaron Burr became vice president
  • 12th amendment added to the constitution to prevent a tie from happening again
the electors an explanation
The Electors – An Explanation
  • Every state has a certain number of electors that vote on president
  • Due to the fact that they vote on all people running they can have a president and vice president from different parties
  • Today however this can not happen, those that run together are elected together
  • This prevents us from having different parties in power
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Chapter 7

Part 5

thomas jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
  • Jefferson was president for 8 years
  • He was a strong leader and really got our country organized and in order
  • Large influence in the decline of the federalists
  • He was a rich land owner from Virginia
  • Even though he was rich he did not dress or act as such
  • Many thought he was untidy, unfriendly, however very intelligent
jefferson as president
Jefferson as President
  • Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, had a different approach to government
  • He strongly thought the government should only do as the Constitution allowed
  • He moved the nation’s capital to from Philadelphia to the District of Columbia
  • He passionately pressed to unify the country no matter the party
  • He removed the Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Lowered residence requirements to 5 years
  • Lowered the federal debt
  • Established West Point military academy
  • Stopped slave importation
  • Acquired Louisiana as a state
the louisiana territory
The Louisiana Territory
  • Spain signed over a large amount of land to France, including New Orleans
  • America had an agreement with Spain to use it as a port
  • After France took control this agreement was withdrawn
  • This stopped a large part of the trade America had in that area
  • We wouldn’t go to war with the very strong France
  • So we needed to persuade France to sell us New Orleans
the louisiana purchase
The Louisiana Purchase
  • Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to buy as much land as he could for 10 million
  • Napoleon offered to sell the entire area for 15 million
  • America approved and the Louisiana Territory became part of the U.S. on December 20, 1803
importance of the louisiana purchase
Importance of The Louisiana Purchase
  • Doubled the size of the country
  • Now controlled the entire Mississippi River
  • Had a lot of new very rich, fertile land
  • Land got divided into 13 additional states:
  • Louisiana
  • Arkansas
  • Missouri
  • Iowa
  • Minnesota
  • North Dakota
  • South Dakota
  • Nebraska
  • Kansas
  • Oklahoma
  • Colorado
  • Wyoming
  • Montana
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Chapter 7

Part 6

jefferson s second term
Jefferson’s Second Term
  • Hamilton decided to run against Burr for governor of New York
  • Hamilton said that Burr couldn’t be trusted
  • This angered Burr and he challenged Hamilton to a DUEL
  • Burr shot Hamilton and killed him
jefferson avoids war
Jefferson Avoids War
  • During Jefferson’s 2nd term England and France were at war again
  • America wanted to continue to stay neutral
  • This angered both France and England
  • America prospered as we traded with both countries
  • France and England blocked America from trading with other countries
  • So America stopped all trade with England and France as well
the embargo act
The Embargo Act
  • No American ship would trade with foreign countries
  • Called the “peaceable coercion”
  • This angered Americans; and many broke the law due to the harm it was doing to their businesses
  • Act was a total failure and was repealed