Chapter 22 – China, Mongolia, and Taiwan Section Notes Video Physical Geography History and Culture of China China Today Mongolia and Taiwan Impact of the Three Gorges Dam Maps China, Mongolia, and Taiwan: Political Physical Precipitation China: Population China’s Environmental Challenges China, Mongolia, and Taiwan Close-up Beijing’s National Day World Almanac Images China’s Projected Urban Population Geography Focus on Culture: Chinese Martial Arts Chinese Farmers Nomadic Life in Mongolia Tensions between China and Taiwan Quick Facts Chapter 22 Visual Summary
Physical Geography • The Big Idea • Physical features, climate, and resources vary across China, Mongolia, and Taiwan. • Main Ideas • Physical features of China, Mongolia, and Taiwan include mountains, plateaus and basins, plains, and rivers. • China, Mongolia, and Taiwan have a range of climates and natural resources.
China is about the size of the United States. China’s physical features include the world’s tallest peaks, some of the world’s driest deserts, and its longest rivers. Mongolia is a landlocked country, dry and rugged with vast grasslands and desert. Taiwan is a green, tropical island off the coast of mainland China. Main Idea 1:Physical features of China, Mongolia, and Taiwan include mountains, plateaus and basins, plains, and rivers.
Key Physical Features • Mountains • Much of this large region is mountainous. • The Himalayas, the world’s tallest mountain range, run along China’s southwest border. • Other mountain ranges in the region include: the Altay Mountains, the Tian Shan, the Kunlun Shan, and the Greater Khingan Range. • Other Features • The Plateau of Tibet is called the Roof of the World. • The Taklimakan Desert is a sea of sand dunes and blinding sandstorms. • The Turpan Depression is China’s lowest point. • In Mongolia, the Gobi is the world’s coldest desert. • The North China Plain holds China’s main farmlands. • Rivers • The Huang He—or the Yellow River—flows across northern China. • Loess is a fertile, yellowish soil. • The Huang He is often called China’s Sorrow because its yearly floods have killed millions of people. • The Chang Jiang—or Yangzi River—flows across central China.
CLIMATE Southeast region Tropical with warm to hot climate Monsoons bring heavy rains in summer. Typhoons strike the southeast coast in summer and fall. Northeast region Dry and cold climate North and west region Mainly dry climate Temperatures vary and can get both very hot and cold. Main Idea 2:China, Mongolia, and Taiwan have a range of climates and natural resources.
Natural Resources • Leading producer of coal, lead, tin, and tungsten • Valuable forestland and farmland China • Coal, iron, and tin • Livestock Mongolia Taiwan • Farmland
History and Culture of China • The Big Idea • Ruled by dynasties in its early history, China is a Communist country with an enormous population and ancient traditions. • Main Ideas • Family lines of emperors ruled China for most of its early history. • In China’s modern history, revolution and civil war led to a Communist government. • China has the world’s most people and a rich culture shaped by ancient traditions.
Shang dynasty First recorded Chinese dynasty Strongest in the Huang He valley Developed China’s first writing system, a calendar, and chopsticks Qin dynasty First dynasty to unite China under one empire Greatest ruler was Shi Huangdi Created standardized money and writing systems, built network of roads and canals and much of the Great Wall Main Idea 1:Family lines of emperors ruled China for most of its early history. Zhou dynasty • Longest-lasting Chinese dynasty • Influenced by Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism • Began using iron tools and plows Han dynasty • Based government on Confucianism • Began trading over Silk Road • Invented paper, sundial, and acupuncture
Contact with the Western world exposed China’s people to new ideas. China’s people grew unhappy with imperial rule. Their unhappiness sparked a revolution. The Chinese revolution resulted in a violent civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists. The civil war ended in October 1949 with the Communists as victors. Mao Zedong became the head of China’s new Communist government—the People’s Republic of China. Main Idea 2:In China’s modern history, revolution and civil war led to a Communist government.
Communist China Communist China under Mao • Mao’s Communist government owned most businesses and land and controlled all areas of life. • Women gained more rights and were able to work. • The government limited freedoms and imprisoned people who criticized it. • Many of the Communist economic programs were unsuccessful. Communist China since Mao • Deng Xiaoping rose to power when Mao died in 1976. • Some private businesses are allowed, and foreign countries are encouraged to invest in China. • Leaders after Deng have continued economic reforms.
China has the world’s largest population. Almost all of China’s population is Han Chinese. Ancient religions, values, and beliefs shape life for China’s many people, despite the fact that the Communist government discourages the practice of religion. China has a rich artistic tradition. Main Idea 3:China has the world’s most people and a rich culture shaped by ancient traditions.
Population and Settlement China has the world’s largest population: 1.3 billion people. Only 10 percent of China’s people live in the west; the remaining 90 percent live in the east. China’s officials try to limit population growth. Ethnic Groups and Language About 92 percent of China’s millions of people identify their ancestry as Han Chinese. The remaining 8 percent of China’s population is comprised of some 55 other ethnic groups. Mandarin is China’s official language. However, many people speak a dialect, a regional variation of a language. China’s People
China’s two main belief systems are Daoism and Buddhism. Daoism stresses living simply and in harmony with nature. Buddhism is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama—the Buddha. Many Chinese blend elements of Daoism and Buddhism with Confucianism. Confucianism is a philosophy based on the ideas and teachings of Confucius. Other major religions in China include Christianity and Islam. Ancestor worship and fortune-telling are also popular. Religion, Values, and Beliefs
Chinese Crafts Items of bronze, jade, ivory, silk, wood, and porcelain Chinese painting Focuses on balance and harmony with nature Calligraphy Chinese literature Known for their poetry, which is highly valued Chinese theater Traditional Chinese opera is popular Elaborate costumes and make-up Chinese architecture Wooden buildings on stone bases Pagodas Many cities mix traditional with modern architecture. Popular culture Martial arts and table tennis, mah-jongg, and karaoke clubs The Arts and Popular Culture
China Today • The Big Idea • China’s economy and cities are growing rapidly, but the Chinese have little political freedom and many environmental problems. • Main Ideas • China’s booming economy is based on agriculture, but industry is growing rapidly. • China’s government controls many aspects of life and limits political freedom. • China is mainly rural, but urban areas are growing. • China’s environment faces a number of serious problems.
Main Idea 1:China’s booming economy is based on agriculture, but industry is growing rapidly. China used to have a command economy, an economic system in which the government owns all the businesses and makes all decisions. In the 1970s China began allowing some aspects of a market economy. A mixed economic approach has helped China’s economy boom. Today China has the world’s second largest economy. China is mainly agricultural; however, industry is growing rapidly. Although economic growth has improved wages and living standards in China, many rural Chinese remain poor and unemployment is high.
Agriculture More Chinese work in agriculture than in any other industry. China is a leading producer of several crops. China’s main farmlands are in the eastern plains and river valleys. Only about 10 percent of China’s land is good for farming, but a large labor force enables China to produce a lot of food. Industry Industry in China is growing rapidly. China produces everything from satellites and chemicals to clothing and toys. Industry and manufacturing are the most profitable part of China’s economy. Agriculture and Industry
More economic freedom has not led to more political freedom. The government controls most areas of life, including newspapers and Internet access. China harshly punishes people who oppose the government. Example: 1989 Tiananmen Square protests in Beijing China takes harsh actions against ethnic rebellions. Example: Tibet Some countries want to stop or limit trade with China until it addresses these human rights issues. Main Idea 2:China’s government controls many aspects of life and limits political freedom.
Main Idea 3:China is mainly rural, but urban areas are growing. Rural China • Most of China’s people live in small, rural villages. • Chinese farmers work the land using the same methods they have used for decades. • Many people are leaving China’s villages for its booming cities. Urban China • China’s growing economy has caused its cities to grow. • Most of China’s cities are on the coast or along major rivers. • China’s largest city is Shanghai, China’s leading seaport and an industrial and commercial center. • Beijing is the second largest city; it is China’s political and cultural center. • In southern China, Hong Kong and Macao are major port cities.
Economic and urban growth has created serious environmental problems. Pollution Loss of forestland and farmland The Chinese are working to address their environmental problems. Hydroelectric power (Three Gorges Dam) Main Idea 4:China’s environment faces a number of serious problems.
Mongolia and Taiwan • The Big Idea • Mongolia is a rugged land with a nomadic way of life and growing cities, while Taiwan is a densely settled and industrialized island. • Main Ideas • Mongolia is a sparsely populated country where many people live as nomads. • Taiwan is a small island with a dense population and a highly industrialized economy.
Main Idea 1:Mongolia is a sparsely populated country where many people live as nomads. Mongolia is home to the Mongol people, who have a proud and fascinating history. The Mongolian way of life remains fairly traditional, despite years of Communist rule. Although many Mongolians still live as nomads, Mongolia is becoming more urban.
Some 700 years ago Mongolia was perhaps the greatest power in the world. The Mongols conquered much of Asia, including China, and built the greatest empire the world had seen at the time. In the late 1600s China conquered Mongolia and ruled it for more than 200 years. With the help of Russia, Mongolia declared independence from China in 1911. Communists gained control of the country and in 1924 formed the Mongolian People’s Republic. Since the Soviet Union’s collapse in 1991, Mongolia has struggled to build a democratic government and a free-market economy. Mongolia’s History
Mongolian Culture Nearly half of Mongolia’s people live as nomads. Nomads make their homes in gers—large circular tents that are easy to put up, take down, and move. Mongolian culture highly prizes horse skills. Mongolia Today Mongolia is sparsely populated. More than 25 percent of Mongolia’s people live in Ulaanbaatar, the capital and only large city. Mongolia’s urban population is slowly growing. The main industries include textiles, carpets, coal, copper, and oil. Mongolia
Main Idea 2:Taiwan is a small island with a dense population and a highly industrialized economy. The Chinese began settling Taiwan in the 600s. At different times in history, both China and Japan have controlled Taiwan. In 1949 the Chinese Nationalists fled the Communists in China and took over Taiwan. Today Taiwan’s government is a multiparty democracy. Although there is considerable tension between China and Taiwan, Taiwan functions as an independent country. Taiwan is a modern country whose rapid growth has spawned serious overcrowding and environmental issues.
China Considers Taiwan to be part of China Threatens force if Taiwan declares independence Officially recognized by the United States Member of the United Nations Taiwan Claims to be China’s true government Growing movement for independence from China Unofficially recognized by the United States Unable to gain membership in the United Nations Tensions between China and Taiwan
Taiwan Taiwan’s Culture • About 85 percent of Taiwan’s population is native Taiwanese. These people are descendants of Chinese people who migrated to Taiwan in the 1700s and 1800s. • Chinese ways dominate Taiwan’s culture. • Because Japan once ruled Taiwan, Japanese culture can be seen there. • European and American practices are becoming noticeable in Taiwan. Taiwan Today • Taiwan is a modern country with about 23 million people. • Most people live on the island’s western coastal plain. • Taiwan’s two largest cities are Taipei, the capital, and Kao-hsiung, the main seaport. • Taiwan is one of Asia’s richest and most industrialized countries.