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The Republic of China (Taiwan). Republic of China 1912. First republic in Asia First president: Sun Yat-sen (1866 - 1925). ROC Constitution (1946). First constitutional president (1948 - 1975): Chiang Kai-shek (1887 - 1975) Defeated by CCP in 1949 Retreated to Taiwan

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republic of china 1912
Republic of China 1912
  • First republic in Asia
  • First president: Sun Yat-sen (1866 - 1925)
roc constitution 1946
ROC Constitution (1946)
  • First constitutional president (1948 - 1975): Chiang Kai-shek (1887 - 1975)
  • Defeated by CCP in 1949
  • Retreated to Taiwan
  • Authoritarian rule for a quarter century
roc government
ROC Government
  • President (4-year term after 1996)
  • The Five ``Yuan”:
    • Executive Yuan
    • Legislative Yuan
    • Judicial Yuan
    • Examination Yuan
    • Control Yuan
  • 2 Provinces and 18 counties
taiwan before 1949
Taiwan before 1949
  • Immigration from mainland China for centuries (Fujian and Hakka)
  • 1885, Qing government promoted Taiwan from prefecture to province
  • 1895, ceded to Japan
  • 1945, returned to Republic of China
  • ``Taiwanese” versus ``mainlanders”
    • Fujian 70%, Hakka 15%, ``mainlanders” 13%
taiwan islands
Taiwan & Islands
  • Area: 13,900 square miles
  • Population: 23 million
chiang kai shek s rule
Chiang Kai-shek’s Rule
  • Popular elections at the basic level
  • Land reform
  • 9-year compulsory education
  • Economic take-off from 1960s
    • Export processing zones attract foreign direct investment
    • Industrialization strengthens manufacturing sector
chiang s one china policy
Chiang’s One-China Policy
  • ``Mainland was temporarily usurped by communist bandits”
  • ``Gloriously retake the mainland”
  • Refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognized PRC
  • ROC was a permanent member of UN Security Council until 1971
lee teng hui 1923
Lee Teng-hui (1923 - )
  • Succeeded Chiang Kai-shek’s son as president of ROC and chairman of GMD in 1988
  • Became the first popularly elected president of ROC in 1996
  • Helped Democratic Progressive Party gain power in 2000
chen shui bian 1950
Chen Shui-bian (1950 - )
  • Leader of the pro-independent Democratic Progressive Party
  • President of ROC 2000-2008
  • Prisoner #2630 since 2008-11-12
diplomatic tug of war
Diplomatic Tug of War
  • 162 countries recognize PRC as the legitimate government of China
  • 27 countries recognize ROC as the legitimate government of China
diplomatic tug of war13
Diplomatic Tug of War
  • 162 countries recognize PRC (Beijing) as the legitimate government of China
    • 8 (’49) 32 (’59) 49 (’69) 113 (’79) 129 (’89)
  • 29 countries recognize ROC (Taipei) as the legitimate government of China
us official policy
US Official Policy
  • US government shifted diplomatic recognition from ROC to PRC in 1979
  • US congress passed Taiwan Relations Act in 1979
  • American Institute in Taiwan
  • Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Offices in US
economic ties
Economic Ties
  • Trade and investment expanded rapidly despite restrictions by ROC government
  • Workaround: Hong Kong & Macau
  • ``Three links”:
    • mail
    • transportation
    • trade
hong kong

Hong Kong

Hong Kong SAR

land people
Land & People
  • 422 square miles
    • Hong Kong Island
    • Kowloon Peninsular
    • New Territories
    • Outlying islands
  • 7 million residents
    • 95% Chinese
brief history
Brief History
  • HK Island was occupied by UK in 1841
  • New Territories on 99-year lease in 1898
  • Occupied by Japan during World War II
  • Shanghai enterprises fled CCP forces in late 1940s
    • industrialization of Hong Kong
  • One of the four ``Asian Tigers”
negotiations with uk
Negotiations with UK
  • Deng Xiaoping: “1 country, 2 systems”
  • PRC Constitution of 1982: S.A.R.
  • PRC & UK Joint Declaration in 1984
handover to prc
Handover to PRC
  • 7th National People’s Congress adopted Basic Law of HKSAR in Beijing in 1990
  • Became Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of PRC in July 1, 1997
basic law of hong kong sar
Basic Law of Hong Kong SAR
  • Stipulated in PRC-UK Joint Declaration in 1984
  • Drafted by a committee with members from both Hong Kong and mainland
  • Adopted by 7th NPC in Beijing in 1990
  • Came into effect on July 1, 1997
  • Constitutional document for HKSAR
3 principles in the basic law
3 Principles in the Basic Law
  • ``One Country, Two Systems”
    • Capitalist system and way of life shall remain unchanged for 50 years (B.L. A5)
  • ``High Degree of Autonomy”
  • ``Hong Kong People Running Hong Kong”
one country two systems
``One Country, Two Systems”
  • Legal system (British common law) shall be maintained, except for any law that contravene the Basic Law and subject to amendment by the legislature (B.L. A8)
high degree of autonomy
`` High Degree of Autonomy”
  • HKSAR enjoys executive, legislative, and independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication (B.L. A2)
hk people running hk
``HK People Running HK”
  • executive authorities and legislature shall be composed of permanent residents of Hong Kong (B.L. A3)
  • public servants must be permanent residents of Hong Kong, with some exceptions
central people s government
Central People’s Government
  • responsible for defense and foreign affairs relating to HKSAR (B.L. A13-14)
  • authorizes HKSAR to conduct relevant external affairs on its own (B.L. A13)
  • HKSAR shall be responsible for the maintenance of public order
  • 11 PRC laws apply to HK (B.L. A18)
rights and freedoms
Rights and Freedoms
  • freedom of speech, of the press, of publication, of association, of assembly, of procession, of demonstration, of communication, of movement, of conscience, of religious belief, of marriage..
  • the right and freedom to form and join trade unions, and to strike
3 branches of political structure
3 Branches of Political Structure
  • Chief Executive
    • Donald Tsang
  • Legislative Council
  • Court of Final Appeal
s election of ce legco
S/election of CE & Legco
  • Shall be specified in the light of the actual situation in the HKSAR and in accordance with the principle of gradual and orderly progress (B.L. A45 & A68)
  • The ultimate aim is the election of the Chief Executive and all the members of the Legislative Council by universal suffrage (B.L. A45 & A68)
s election of chief executive
S/election of Chief Executive
  • 800-member Election Committee
    • industrial, commercial, and financial sectors 1/4
    • the professions 1/4
    • labor, social services, religious, & other 1/4
    • Legco, HK deputies to NPC, etc. 1/4
  • Donald Tsang (2005 - 2012)
    • no more than two consecutive terms
since 1997
Since 1997
  • Freedoms and rights substantially intact
    • dissident groups
    • Falun Gong
  • Judicial system remains the same
  • Weak executive and strong civil service
  • Lack of political skills
  • Multiple political parties
hong kong s competitiveness
Hong Kong’s Competitiveness
  • Geographic location
    • one of the best deep-water ports in the world
  • hardworking well-educated workforce
    • literacy rate 94%
world s freest economy
``World’s Freest Economy”
  • exports & imports each (>US$300b) > GDP
  • GDP per capita: US$43,700 (PPP)
  • no VAT, sales tax, or capital gains tax
  • only 3 types of income are taxed:
    • profits, salaries, and property
  • but
    • 31% live in public housing
influence on mainland china
Influence on Mainland China
  • US$220 billion direct investment each way
  • Hong Kong bodies of law and expertise
  • Hong Kong attracts talents from mainland
  • Hong Kong radios, TV, newspapers, magazines, and Internet on mainland
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