“The West and the World”. Chapter 17. New Maritime Technologies. Better Maps [Portulan]. Hartman Astrolabe (1532). Mariner’s Compass. Sextant. New Weapons Technology. Prince Henry, the Navigator. School for Navigation, 1419. European trade routes. Christopher Columbus [1451-1506 ].
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“The West and the World” Chapter 17
New Maritime Technologies Better Maps [Portulan] Hartman Astrolabe(1532) Mariner’s Compass Sextant
Prince Henry, the Navigator • School for Navigation, 1419
Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World:Early 16c
Spanish Exploration • Columbus • Balboa • Cortes • Pizarro • De Leon • De Soto • Coronado • Vespucci
The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1434& The Pope’s Line of Demarcation, 1493
Direct Causes = 3 G’s • Political: Become a world power through gaining wealth and land. (GLORY) • Economic: Search for new trade routes with direct access to Asian/African luxury goods would enrich individuals and their nations (GOLD) • Religious: spread Christianity and weaken Middle Eastern Muslims. (GOD) • The 3 motives reinforce each other
The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs vs. Montezuma II Fernando Cortez 400 soldiers, 100 sailors, and--most importantly--between 10 and 20 horses. Empire of 25,000,000
The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas vs. Atahualpa Francisco Pizarro Incan Empire of 20,000,000 3 ships, 180 men and 27 cavaliers.
Columbian Exchange • New Worlddomesticatedanimalsdogsllamasguinea pigsfowl (a few species) • Old Worlddomesticatedanimalsdogshorsesdonkeyspigscattlegoatssheepbarnyard fowl
COLONIAL PERIOD COLONIZATION IS A NATURAL OUTGROWTH OF EXPLORATION MERCANTILISM • COLONIES EXIST TO BENEFIT THE MOTHER COUNTRY 3 MAJOR COUNTRIES TOOK THE LEAD IN COLONIZING THE NEW WORLD • SPAIN • FRANCE • ENGLAND