Settling the West - Chapter 3.1 People pour into the west: Why? • Gold • Silver • Copper Metals were needed by industries in the East. Placer mining – using picks, shovels and pans. Quartz mining – digging deep into the earth.
People also pouring into the west for Land: • The Great Plains Area: • Ranching – long cattle drive north to Chicago where the packing companies were located and shipping out of the country was possible. • Farming – the Homestead Act. For $10 you could register for 160 acres. • The Wheat Belt – agriculturally rich.
Impact on the Native Americans: As settlers moved in they were forced to relocate to other territories, or become farmers. Some groups tried to resist: Lakota Sioux – Sitting Bull Nez Pierce – Chief Joseph The Ghost Dance – performed by the Lakota to celebrate a hoped-for-day. Violence and government action put an end to the Ghost Dance
The Dawes Act: Passed by Congress to lead the Native American into assimilation into the white man culture. Native Americans were given plots of land to farm. In the end, the Dawes Act and the effort to assimilate the Native Americans failed and their way of life was doomed.
Think - Write - Pair - Share What is your opinion about the United States and their policy towards the Native Americans? I think the U.S. policy towards the American Indians _______ because _______________. Your justification / explanation Your opinion My Example: I think the U.S. policy towards the American Indians was fair because they needed to be civilized and learn new technologies and a better way of life, you know, more like the white man.
Industrialization: Chapter 3, section 2 Industrial revolution begins in the USA in the early 1800s. Before 1860 – Mostly farming, only 1.3 million out of 30 million people were involved in industry. Most people lived on the farm. After Civil War – millions of people left the farms and moved to the cities, working in mines and factories rather than farming.
By 1900, the USA was the leading industrial nation. Why? Natural Resources: Water, timber, coal, iron, copper, and a new resource called petroleum (oil). Transportation: Railroads and the automobile made America more mobile.
Large Workforce: Between 1860 and 1910 the population of the USA tripled. Why? Large families and immigration. Between 1870 and 1910, about 20 million immigrants arrived in the USA, mostly from China and Europe. Impact: More people to work in the factories and increased production in factories and consumer consumption.
Other reasons for rapid industrialization: Free Enterprise – Capitalism. A rise in entrepreneurship – people taking the risk to start a business for profit. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ New Inventions: A flood of new inventions helped increase the nation’s production and improved the nation’s transportation and communications systems.
Alexander Graham Bell: The telephone. Thomas Edison: Phonograph, light bulb, Electric generator, the battery, the motion picture.
Gustavus Swift: The refrigerated railcar – important for shipping perishables. BigBigBIG
Natural Resources A Large Workforce Reasons why the United States Industrialized so quickly New Inventions Free Enterprise
The railroads: Linking the Nation
In 1865, the United States had 35,000 miles of train tracks, almost all of it on the eastern side of the Mississippi River. By 1900, there was more than 200,000 miles of tracks stretching all across the USA. In 1862, President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railway Act which provided for the construction of a transcontinental railroad to connect East with West.
The first Transcontinental Railroad was finally completed on May 10, 1869 and was connected at Promontory Point, Utah.
Land Grants and the Railroad companies: To encourage the spread of the railroads, the federal government gave the railroad companies millions of acres throughout the USA. After putting the railroads in, the companies would then sell the land to settlers and other businesses to raise more money. In all, the government gave 128 million acres of land to the railroad companies. Impact: This led to the owners of the railroad companies becoming super rich and powerful.
The Robber Barons: J.P. Morgan – mining, steel Leland Stanford - Railroad
Andrew Carnegie – Steel industry John D Rockefeller - Oil
Question: Talk it over with your partner. Be ready to give an answer. What is the difference between a Robber Baron and a regular business man? What is the difference between a Robber Baron and a philanthropist?
The Rise of Big Business: Before the Civil War, most business and factories were owned by partnerships, and most were small. All that changed after the Civil War. With the rise of corporations, businesses owned by many people called stockholders, businesses became very large. Here is how it worked:
Vertical Integration – the purchase of companies at all levels of production.
Check for Understanding: Hold up the correct amount of fingers for the correct answer. Which would fit John D. Rockefeller best? 1. Vertical Integration 2. Horizontal Integration Which would fit Andrew Carnegie best? 3. Vertical Integration 4. Horizontal Integration
Horizontal and Vertical Integration lead to the problem of Monopolies – when a single company gains control of an entire market. This is how the Robber Barons became so rich.
The Rise of Unions: With the rise of industries, the standard of living in America became better. However, people were still dissatisfied because, 1. Working conditions were not good. 2. The growing disparity of wealth – the rich got richer faster than the middle class got richer.
People tried to organize into unions. But it met with opposition because of Marxism (AKA Communism). Many immigrants had come from European countries and the fear was that people were spreading it into the USA. Eventually, unions began to form based on skills and specific jobs. Example: miners, teamsters, railroad workers, garment workers, etc..
The first “mega” union (Large combined unions) was the American Federation of Labor (aka – AFL) formed by Samuel Gompers. Over 20 trade unions combined into one large union for the purpose of gaining more influence and power to gain benefits for its members.
Immigration and Urbanization: Chapter 3, section 3 Between 1860 and 1900, 14 million immigrant came to the United States. A large number of these came from Eastern Europe. Those coming from Europe came to Ellis Island in New York. Other immigrants came from Asia, mainly from China and Japan. They came thru Angel Island, in the San Francisco Bay.
They came for several reasons: • For better jobs • For a better way of life • To escape persecution • To avoid military service The passage here from other countries was long, expensive, under very harsh conditions. Most settled in very large cities such as New York, Chicago, Milwaukee, and Detroit.
In these cities the people would congregate and settle in “enclaves” according to their nationality and race. Ie. Little Italy, China towns, ethnic neighborhoods. Living conditions were very poor, crowded, filthy, and terrible. With few sanitation laws and non-existent healthcare for the immigrants, sickness and disease was rampant. Slums, ghettos, and run down apartment buildings became the norm in the large cities.
The Resurgence of Nativism: Definition again – the preference of native born people, the desire to limit immigration, and the rejection of anything foreign. Anti: Irish German Chinese Japanese Jews Catholics Italian Anti-anything not American Labor unions rejected immigrants from joining.
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882: Made it illegal for any Chinese to come to the United States after 1882. Many came to work on the railroads and big cities. Chinese protested because they were singled out. No such ban was placed on any other immigrant group. The law was renewed in 1892, became permanent in 1902, and was not repealed until 1943.
T.W.P.S. How would you feel if your race or nationality was treated like the Chinese were? What would you do to protest (legally). Answer this question sensibly and thoughtfully. Sentence starter: If laws similar laws were passed today against my nationality I would feel ___________, and I would protest by ______________________. My example – If laws …, I would feel angry and frustrated and would protest by writing letters to government officials and asking them for help.
The Growth of American Cities: During the 30 years after the Civil War - There number of people living in towns with a population of over 2500 people went from 10 million to 30 million. In 1840 there were only 131 cities; by 1900 there were 1700.
Even though the urban life was harsh and crowed, the standard of living was still better than it had been before the industrial revolution. Cities grew larger and larger because of more immigrants coming into the USA and because people were moving from rural to urban areas for more and better jobs. Skyscrapers began to become more and more common in the larger cities.
Mass transit, cable cars, and trains began to transport people all over the cities.
Urban Problems and Politics: Problems – Crime, violence, fire, disease, overcrowding, pollution, poor sanitation, epidemics, poor drinking water, and the list goes on and on. Journalist, Jacob Riis – wrote a book detailing the terrible living conditions in the cities called How The Other Half Lives.
Political Machines: Political groups (parties) would form, who would force the providers of services people needed to provide better services to the people. In return, the people would vote for these party politicians on election day. Many times graft and fraud got the best results. Many people got rich in these political machines.