World War II Experience By Greg Butler
Directions • Use the action buttons on & at the bottom of each page to navigate through the World War II Experience. • Click on the icon to where appropriate to hear sound. • Click on videos to learn more about World War II.
World War II WWII Causes Jewish Holocaust Early Aggressions Lead to War European Front Pacific Front Jeopardy Review Home
WWII Causes Failure to Punish Effectively Rise of Dictators Lebensraum Appeasement Menu
Failure to Punish Effectively • At the end of WWI, the Treaty of Versailles focused more upon punishing Germany and other nations than containing its aggression. • U.S. President Woodrow Wilson argued that it was a dangerous policy to leave a defeated foe without the dignity & hope to carry on as a stable nation. WWII Causes
Failure to Punish Effectively • Broken and desperate nations were hungry for a leader who made promises to return their nations to power. Dictators made these promises. • Pointing to the ruins of their countries and the economic disaster of the worldwide depression, the masses lacked the will to not believe. WWII Causes
Dictators Italy Germany Japan WWII Causes
An Italian school teacher, journalist, and political activist. A wounded veteran of WWI. He establishes his Fascist party. Benito Mussolini Country
Mussolini • Mussolini threatened to invade Rome unless his authority was recognized , Mussolini is made Prime Minister (1922). • Within three years, Mussolini declares himself dictator of all of Italy. Country
A failed painter and wounded vet of WWI Enraged by Germany’s defeat and the reparations outlined in the Versailles treaty Adolf Hitler Country
Hitler • Hitler joins a political party of only 40 members, the German Worker’s party and soon becomes its leader (1919). • Original party changes its name to the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi)
Nazis attempt to overthrow the Bavarian state government The coup d’etat failed and Hitler was found guilty of high treason and spent only 9 months in jail. Hitler
Hitler • In jail, he wrote his autobiography, Mein Kampf, in which he described a plan to cure Germany’s problems
When he gets out of jail, the Nazis continue to appeal to Germans disheartened by massive inflation and unemployment Hitler promised to stabilize the country, rebuild the economy and revive the German empire Hitler
Hitler • Hitler blamed Jews for Germany’s problems and preached Aryans were a “master race”.
By Jan. 1933, the Nazi party had the most seats in the Reichstag and Hitler becomes chancellor. The Reichstag gave him dictatorial power in the new government called the Third Reich Hitler Country
Japan too was eager to become a world power, but the nation lacked natural resources and depended on the United States and other countries for iron, coal, and oil (1930s). Empower Hirohito and Hideki Tojo Country
Hirohito & Tojo • Emperor Hirohito, considered a divine king, ruled over Japan but his advisors made most of the decisions. • General Tojo was making most of the decisions regarding the military and made the decision to bomb Pearl Harbor Country
Lebensraum • Means “living room or living space” • Friedrich Ratzel, a German geographer, wrote in an essay that states tended to expand their boundaries according to their ability to do so or to justify expansion. • Hitler declared it only right, natural, and inevitable that the German people should have the living space that the entire might of the German state could obtain. WWII Causes
Policy of Appeasement • Describes the British policy towards German expansionism, used by Neville Chamberlain, in the late 1930s. • This led to the Munich Agreement in which Hitler received the Sudetenland & Chamberlain thought he had achieved peace. • Shortly after the agreement Hitler invaded Poland, which began WWII WWII Causes
Aggressions Lead to World War Italy Germany Japan Menu
Italian Aggression • Claiming efficiency and order were necessary to restore Italy to its glorious past, Benito Mussolini suspended elections, centralized the economy under state control, and built a stronger army • He also established an aggressive foreign policy by launching an imperialistic campaign in Africa. Aggressions Lead to War
Axis Powers Form(July, 1936) • Dictators join forces • Through the Rome-Berlin Axis and the German-Japanese Anti-Comintern Pact Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo created an alliance of military cooperation. Aggressions Lead to War
German Aggression • Germany Rearms under Hitler • Hitler rearmed, first secretly, then boldly as the nations of Europe lacked the will to take action against this violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Aggressions Lead to War
Reoccupation(March, 1936) • Hitler retakes the Rhineland • Hitler ordered his soldiers to cross the Rhine River, while both Great Britain and France did not resist or protest this action
Blitzkrieg Test(1938) • Spanish Civil War • Hitler and Mussolini support Francisco Franco’s revolutionary forces in Spain. Hitler uses this as a testing ground for his Blitzkrieg warfare.
Austria Falls(March, 1938) • Hitler takes Austria • The German Anschluss describes Germany’s invasion and annexation of Austria.
Hitler threatens Czechoslovakia(September, 1938) • Munich Conference • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain met with Adolf Hitler and agreed to allow Germany to take the Sudetenland, the German speaking region of Czechoslovakia.
Czechoslovakia Falls(March, 1939) • Hitler takes all of Czechoslovakia • Hitler broke the Munich Pact as German army units invade and occupy Prague.
False Alliance • Russian Dictator Josef Stalin signed a non-aggression pact with Germany, which gave Hitler permission to invade Poland with their help. • Hitler agreed not to interfere with a Russian invasion of Finland.
Poland Attacked(September, 1939) • Hitler Invades Poland • Stalin aids Hitler’s invasion of Poland by attacking from the East as Germany attacks from the West. • WWII has begun
War is Declared • After the attack of Poland by the German Luftwaffe (Air Force), bound by treaties with Poland, Great Britain & France declared war on Germany. • “Sitzkrieg” (1939-40) • After the invasion of Poland, Great Britain & France did not take the offensive in the West for quite some time.
Hitler’s Betrayal of Stalin(June, 1941) • Hitler invades Soviet Union Without warning, the German armies invade the Soviet Union steamrolling the Red Army with its Blitzkrieg style of attack. Aggressions Lead to War
Japanese Aggression(1937-1938) • Rape of Nanjing • Japanese forces attacked all along the Chinese Coast massacring Chinese citizens and prisoners of war. Aggressions Lead to War
U.S. Response • The US responds through the American Volunteer Group, a unit of Chinese volunteer pilots who fight the Japanese in China. • The AVG are unofficially called the “Flying Tigers” after they paint saber-toothed tigers on the noses of their fighter planes.
Trouble with Japan • As a response to Japanese aggression in the Pacific, the U.S. froze Japanese assets & embargoed some exports (economic sanctions). • The Japanese sent a peace mission to the U.S. with a list of demands, but the U.S. rejected all demands.
Pearl Harbor(December, 1941) • On December 7th at 7:55 am, some 200 Japanese fighter planes attacked our naval bases at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • 2,403 American soldiers, sailors, & civilians & destroying 19 ships & 292 aircraft.
Enemy Concerns “I fear we have only awakened a sleeping giant, and his reaction will be terrible”. - Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
We Interrupt this Program Click on the sound file to a CBS News Flash on December 7, 1941
U.S. Declares War • On December 8, 1941, President Roosevelt delivers his war message to Congress. • On December 11, 1941 the U.S. declares war on Japan; in turn Germany & Italy bound by its alliance with Japan declare war on the U.S.
FDR Declares War Click on the sound file to listen to Franklin Roosevelt’s War Message to Congress Aggressions Lead to War
European Front Major Events Major Battles Results Menu
Early Events • In 1940, Germany continued its assault on Europe by invading & occupying Denmark, Norway, Holland, & Belgium. • On May 13, 1940, Winston Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain as Britain’s Prime Minister. European Front
U.S. Involvement • With the invasion of Poland & the imminent threat to Great Britain, President Roosevelt sought to lead the American people away from their isolationist attitudes. • Burke-Wadsworth Act (1940) – all men between the ages of 21 & 35 had to register for the draft.
A Little Help For Our Friends • Lend – Lease Act (1941) – With Americans favoring a policy of giving aid to Britain, this act gave President Roosevelt the authority to aid nations whose defense was vital to the U.S. European Front
Hitler Conquers France(1940) • The German Army takes advantage of France’s lack of military preparation to occupy about two-thirds of France. European Front
Battle of Britain(1940-1941) • London was attacked by the German Luftwaffe on 57 consecutive nights. The British Royal Air Force was successful in holding off the Luftwaffe despite being greatly outnumbered.
Resistance in Russia(June, 1941) • Hitler’s Invades Russia – Russian Dictator Josef Stalin used the “scorched-earth policy” or the practice of destroying crops & other resources in order to keep them from falling into enemy hands to stall the German advance to Moscow.
Plan of Attack • Despite objections from American Generals & President Roosevelt who favored an invasion across the English Channel, Churchill planned an invasion of the “soft underbelly of Europe” through Italy.