Closing financing gaps in PPP projects – new approaches
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Closing financing gaps in PPP projects – new approaches March 13 th 2012 Clive Harris Manager, PPPs World Bank Institu - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Closing financing gaps in PPP projects – new approaches March 13 th 2012 Clive Harris Manager, PPPs World Bank Institute. Headline numbers on private infrastructure hides negative trends.

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Closing financing gaps in PPP projects – new approachesMarch 13th 2012Clive HarrisManager, PPPsWorld Bank Institute

Headline numbers on private infrastructure hides negative trends
Headline numbers on private infrastructure hides negative trends

  • Investment in new projects in the first half of 2011 was the fourth highest since 2000.117 projects with private participation reached closing with investment commitments of US$42.9 billion

  • But :

    • Excluding India and Brazil investment in new projects would have fallen by 34%

    • The number of developing countries with new PPI projects in the first half of 2011 (20) was the lowest number since the early 1990s

  • Many markets finding commercial bank debt increasingly scarce and/or costly

  • Bringing in new sources of funding e.g. from institutional investors has challenges

Investment in private infrastructure correlates strongly with country risk
Investment in private infrastructure correlates strongly with country risk

Source: Araya & Schwartz (2012)

Increasing government support to leverage private investment with country riskSource: Best Practices in Public-Private Partnerships Financing in Latin America: the role of subsidy mechanisms (WBI, WB-LAC Govt of Spain)

  • Governments have to efficiently leverage private investment using their own balance sheets using direct and indirect fiscal support

  • This presentation will review:

    • “Viability Gap Funds” and similar mechanisms for providing subsidies

    • Guarantee Funds

    • New financial instruments designed to bring in institutional investors

Www pppnetwork info with country risk

Rationale for subsidizing PPPs with country riskSource: Best Practices in Public-Private Partnerships Financing in Latin America: the role of subsidy mechanisms (WBI, WB-LAC, Govt of Spain)

Examples of subsidy schemes
Examples of subsidy schemes with country risk

  • India – “Viability Gap Fund”

  • Mexico - FONADIN— FondoNacional de Infraestructura

  • Brazil’s Federal and State PPP Policy allowing for subsidies to PPPs

    Key Aspects:

  • How are funds appropriated in the budget (capitalized fund vs annual appropriations)?

  • Who reviews requests and approves subsidies?

  • What projects are eligible for subsidies?

  • How is the amount of subsidy determined?

  • When and how is the subsidy paid?

  • What are related policies? (e.g. tariffs, contract length etc.)

India s scheme for support to ppps in infrastructure
India’s “Scheme for Support to PPPs in Infrastructure” with country risk

  • Objective is to accelerate and increase PPPs in infrastructure

  • Level of support - grant support up to 20% of project cost, 20% additional support by sponsoring entity

  • Resourcing - Scheme financed by annual provisions through regular budgetary process, revolving fund established to ensure liquidity

  • Eligibility –

    • Financing available to projects in eligible sectors with minimum 51% private equity

    • Project company selected through open bid with award on basis of lowest grant support required

    • Tariff fixed upfront – project must provide service against payment of predetermined tariff or user charge

  • Mechanics - Grant disbursed proportionate to balance debt and direct from MoF to project

India vgf performance
India – VGF performance with country risk

  • 115 projects of value $13.6 billion with VGF $ 2.6 billion received in-principle approval

  • 19 projects of value $ 1.1 billion with VGF $0.2 billion achieved financial close

  • Predictability of funding

  • Market based determination of VGF

  • 20% cap as a filter

  • Performance linked disbursal


  • Concentration of projects in a few sectors

Source: based on data from Government of India

Mexico fonadin
Mexico – FONADIN with country risk

  • Objectives:

    • Support private sector investment by providing financing, guarantees, and subsidies to infrastructure

    • Participate in the evaluation, structuring and implementation of infrastructure projects

    • Collaborate with public, private, and social sectors in the design, construction, financing, operation and transfer of infrastructure, and in granting universal access

  • Level of support - Maximum 50 percent subsidy

  • Resourcing- Appropriated from state budget as capitalization of infrastructure funds (FINFRA and FARAC). Later transferred (US$3.3) billion to capitalize FONADIN

  • Eligibility –

    • minimum 20 percent equity investment

    • Subsidy amount main bid variable, determined through competitive bidding

    • Subsidy paid out at dates defined in contract

  • Mechanics - The subsidy is paid according to the payment schedule in the contract signed between the implementing agency and the private investor.

Mexico fonadin performance
Mexico – FONADIN performance with country risk

  • In its first two years, FONADIN has approved U$1.3 billion in subsidies for projects with a total cost of U$3.4 billion. The complete portfolio of projects receiving fiscal support from FONADIN (including loans and guarantees) is U$13.9 billion

  • From 2008 onward, total investment in projects receiving direct subsidies has been about US$3.4 billion. This is just over one-third of total investment in PPP projects in all sectors (US$9.5 billion)

  • Challenges:

    • Lack of pipeline and well-prepared projects

    • FONADIN has other instruments and pressure to provide support via guarantees and subordinated debt

Financial guarantees
Financial guarantees with country risk

  • A financial guarantee covers timely payment of interest and repayment of principal to the buyers (holders) of a debt security

    • Wraps

    • Partial Credit Guarantees

    • Before the 2008 financial crisis, monoliners provided guarantees to mitigate payment risks

Brazil guarantee schemes
Brazil – guarantee schemes with country risk

  • Federal PPP Guarantee Fund (FGP):

    • Guarantee only government payments

    • In case of default the FGP covers payments 45 days after it is due or 90 days if the outhory does note reconized the debt with a formal justification.

    • The guarantee is provide free of charge.

    • Challenge:

      • The guarantee is available only after the contract is signed, so bidders are not considering their effects in their bids.

      • Only for federal PPPs and pipeline has been weak at the federal level

  • Sub-national governments in Brazil have set up structures to provide credit enhancement to PPP projects:

    • Bahia - the creation of the Agência de Fomento do Estado da Bahia S/A-DESENBAHIA (Development Agency of the State of Bahia S/A) has allowed the state resources to be transfered in a separate bank account, whose specific aim is to guarantee PPP contracts where the state of Bahia is to act as a public partner.

    • Special entities (trust) created that acts as the revenues pass-through, which supports the commitments of the States.

Mexico guarantee schemes
Mexico – guarantee schemes with country risk

  • BANOBRAS currently offers : i) “Timely Payment Guarantees” (Garantías de Pago Oportuno (GPO)) and ii) Contract Payment Enhancement Guarantee (CPEG)

    • GPO are guarantees of timely payment of principal and interest: only one in a refinancing transaction closed in May 2008 for the State of Mexico for c. USD 2 billion

    • CPEG: BANOBRAS has issued only one of these guarantees, in 2009, in the form of a “Line of Guarantees” in favor of the State of Mexico, applicable to different PPS projects.

  • FONADIN also offers guarantees:

    • PariPassu: disburse only a portion of the insufficiency of funds with other lenders

    • Last Payment: will be the last to disburse the guarantee, after other guarantees have been honored.

    • Mixed: A combination of first-loss and pari-passu guarantees.

    • With a limit of 50% of the payment.

  • Challenge:

    • Construction risk, if there is construction involved, the guarantee can be committed in advance but would not become “active” until the project has completed the construction and earned the right to receive payments.

    • Guarantees are not well known in Mexico, and BANOBRAS (the financial operator) is perceived as a lender more than a guarantor.

Innovative approaches for ppp financing
Innovative approaches for PPP financing with country risk

  • Four financial instruments have been created in Latin America in order to support the PPP programs and crowd in new sources of financing:

    • Infrastructure bonds funded mainly by pension funds. Implemented in Chile to fund most of the PPPs projects before the financial crisis. After the crisis, pension funds are still financing PPPs when these include an income guarantee in the contract

    • CRPAOs (Certificates for advance of works) issued by the Government of Peru (GOP) and funded by pension funds and other institutional investors. The transaction is a securitization of the CRPAOs. Five PPP projects have been funding with CRPAOs between 2006-2008. The certificates are unconditional and irrevocable obligation of the GOP. CRPAOs are transferable

    • CR RPI, is a variant of CRPAO but noT issued by the GOP, and are supported in a trust. This is a mechanism created to fund PPPs in the Health Sector and are funded by pension funds

    • CKDs (structured equity securities), issued with the rules applicable to Mexican mandatory pension funds and securities regulations to be listed on the Mexican Stock Exchange. CKDs can fund equity (through investment funds) or debt for individual project, and cover not only PPP projects

Role of pension funds in ppp financing the latin america case
Role of pension funds in PPP financing: the Latin America Case

  • Latin America pension plans manage significant amounts of resources (between 15% and 60% of GDP depending on the country, BBVA source).

  • Pension funds invest in infrastructure projects (directly and indirectly), with between 6% to 19% of the total portfolio and between 1% to 4%of GDP.

  • Challenges:

    • Administrative and legal restrictions can affect the key actors in the PPP processes.

    • Risks are not adequately assigned/assessed.

Ensuring value for money
Ensuring value-for-money Case

  • Increased levels of support required place an extra emphasis on achieving value-for-money

  • Renewed attention on:

    • Strengthening PPP frameworks

    • Structures for decision-making that improve transparency

    • Increasing public sector capacity

  • More attention needed on:

    • Contract management capabilities to ensure efficient project delivery

    • Project appraisal and screening methodologies