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IMPROVING ACHIEVEMENT AND CLOSING GAPS BETWEEN GROUPS. Prepared for the National Evaluation Institute Education Trust, 2003. What Do We Know About Student Achievement?. 12th Grade Achievement In Math and Science is Up Somewhat. High School Achievement: Math and Science.

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improving achievement and closing gaps between groups

IMPROVING ACHIEVEMENT AND CLOSING GAPS BETWEEN GROUPS

Prepared for the National Evaluation Institute

Education Trust, 2003

high school achievement math and science
High School Achievement: Math and Science

Source: NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress.

gaps narrow 1970 88 naep reading 17 year olds
Gaps Narrow 1970-88NAEP Reading 17 Year-Olds

Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 107) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000

gaps narrow 1973 86 naep math scores 13 year olds
Gaps Narrow 1973-86NAEP Math Scores, 13 Year-Olds

Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 108) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000

gaps narrow then hold steady or widen naep math scores 17 year olds
Gaps Narrow, Then Hold Steady or Widen: NAEP Math Scores, 17 Year-Olds

32

20

Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 108) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000

value added declining in high school math
Value Added Declining in High School Math

Age 13-17 Growth

Source: NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress; updated with 2000 NAEP results.

reading students entering better prepared but leaving worse
Reading: Students Entering Better Prepared, But Leaving Worse

Source: NAEP 1996 Trends in Academic Progress

after 1988 gaps mostly widen naep reading 17 year olds
After 1988, Gaps Mostly Widen NAEP Reading, 17 Year-Olds

21

31

Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 107) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000

african american and latino 17 year olds do math at same levels as white 13 year olds
African American and Latino 17 Year Olds Do Math at Same Levels As White 13 Year Olds

Source: NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables (online)

african american and latino 17 year olds read at same levels as white 13 year olds
African American and Latino 17 Year Olds Read at Same Levels as White 13 Year Olds

Source: Source: NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables (online)

not surprisingly these patterns also clear in hs graduation college entry and graduation rates

Not Surprisingly, These Patterns Also Clear in HS Graduation, College Entry and Graduation Rates

students graduate from high school at different rates
Students Graduate From High School At Different Rates

Source: US Bureau of Census, Current Population Reports, Educational Attainment in the United States: March 1998 (p. 20-513), Detailed Tables No. 2

slide28
Highest Achieving Low-Income Students Attend Postsecondary at Same Rate as Bottom Achieving High Income Students

Source: NELS: 88, Second (1992) and Third Follow up (1994); in, USDOE, NCES, NCES Condition of Education 1997 p. 64

of every 100 white kindergartners
Of Every 100 White Kindergartners:

(24 Year-Olds)

Source: US Bureau of Census, Current Population Reports, Educational Attainment in the United States; March 2000, Detailed Tables No. 2

of every 100 african american kindergartners
Of Every 100 African American Kindergartners:

(24 Year-Olds)

Source: US Bureau of Census, Current Population Reports, Educational Attainment in the United States; March 2000, Detailed Tables No. 2

of every 100 latino kindergartners
Of Every 100 Latino Kindergartners:

(24 Year-Olds)

Source: US Bureau of Census, Current Population Reports, Educational Attainment in the United States; March 2000, Detailed Tables No. 2

college graduates by age 26
College Graduates by Age 26

Source: Tom Mortenson, Research Seminar on Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Post Secondary, 1997.

what we hear adults say
What We Hear Adults Say:
  • They’re poor;
  • Their parents don’t care;
  • They come to schools without breakfast;
  • Not enough books
  • Not enough parents . . .
wrigley elementary
Wrigley Elementary
  • 78% Low-Income
  • 3rd Highest Performing in State in Reading
  • 6th Highest Performing in State in Writing

KENTUCKY

slide40

Source: Education Trust analysis of data from National School-Level State Assessment Score Database (www.schooldata.org).

slide41

Source: Education Trust analysis of data from National School-Level State Assessment Score Database (www.schooldata.org).

slide42

Source: Education Trust analysis of data from National School-Level State Assessment Score Database (www.schooldata.org).

mount royal elementary middle baltimore md
Mount Royal Elementary/Middle, Baltimore, MD
  • 99% African American
  • 73% Low-Income
  • Highest Performing in State on state’s 5th grade Math test.
  • Top 10% of state in 5th grade reading.

MARYLAND

pimlico elementary baltimore md
Pimlico Elementary, Baltimore, MD
  • 100% African American
  • 94% Low-Income
  • Top 1% in improvement on the state’s 5th grade Math test.

Maryland

hambrick middle school aldine tx
Hambrick Middle School,Aldine, TX
  • 94% African American and Latino (state = 56%)
  • 85% low-income (state = 50%)
  • Has performed in the top fifth of all Texas middle schools in both reading and math in both 7th and 8th grades over a 3-year period.
prince edward county high farmville va
Prince Edward County High, Farmville VA

(715 students – 55% African American and Latino)

Sources: Virginia Department of Education Web site, http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Assessment/2002SOLpassrates.html.

aldine tx raising achievement for all while narrowing gaps
Aldine, TX: Raising Achievement for All While Narrowing Gaps

Source: Texas Education Agency-Academic Excellence Indicator System Report 1994 through 2001.

aldine tx raising achievement for all while narrowing gaps52
Aldine, TX: Raising Achievement for All While Narrowing Gaps

Source: Texas Education Agency-Academic Excellence Indicator System Report 1994 through 2001.

4th grade math african american gains between 1992 and 2000
4th Grade Math African American Gains Between 1992 and 2000

Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables

4th grade math latino gains between 1992 and 2000
4th Grade Math Latino Gains Between 1992 and 2000

Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables

8th grade math african american gains between 1990 and 2000
8th Grade Math African American Gains Between 1990 and 2000

Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables

slide57

8th Grade Math Latino Gains Between 1990 and 2000

Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables

delaware gains in grade 4 reading outpace the nation 1998 2002
Delaware: Gains in Grade 4 Reading Outpace the Nation, 1998-2002

Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables

minority and or poor students in some states outperforming white and or non poor students in others

Minority and/or poor students in some states outperforming white and/or non-poor students in others.

8th grade writing african americans in texas perform as well or better than whites in 7 states
8th Grade Writing: African Americans in Texas Perform as Well or Better Than Whites in 7 States

Source: NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress

what students say yes some blame themselves but they also say

What Students Say: Yes, some blame themselves. But they also say...

some teachers don’t know

their subjects;

counselors underestimate our

potential;

principals dismiss concerns;

expectations wretchedly, boringly low.

element 1 they make no excuses everybody takes responsibility for student learning
Element 1: They Make No Excuses. Everybody Takes Responsibility for Student Learning.
they don t
They don’t:
  • Blame student performance on the kids and their families;
  • Spend excessive amounts of time documenting their demographics; or,
  • Screech about the inappropriateness of state standards for THEIR kids.
they do
They Do:
  • Embrace meaningful state standards and assessments as valuable benchmarks and leverage points;
  • Accept the need for public accountability for results;
  • View poverty and family problems as barriers that can be surmounted; and, most important...
slide75
They build SYSTEMS to support teachers, administrators, parents and students themselves to move toward standards.
element 2 they have clear and specific goals for what students should learn in every grade level
Element 2: They Have Clear and Specific Goals For What Students Should Learn in Every Grade Level
slide77

Historically, most of the really important decisions about what students should learn and what kind of work was “good enough” left to individual teachers.

result a system that
Result? A System That:
  • Doesn’t expect very much from MOST students; and,
  • Expects much less from some types of students than others.
why kids drop out
Why Kids Drop Out

“Students mainly consider dropping out because they are not engaged by the school.

Students are most likely to cite the following reasons for considering dropping out:

  • School was boring (76%); and
  • They were not learning enough (42%).”

Source: Metropolitan Life, Survey of the American Teacher 2002: Student Life: School, Home and

Community, p. 9.

slide80

Students can do

no better than

the assignments

they are given...

grade 10 writing assignment
Grade 10 Writing Assignment

A frequent theme in literature is the conflict between the individual and society. From literature you have read, select a character who struggled with society. In a well-developed essay, identify the character and explain why this character’s conflict with society is important.

grade 10 writing assignment82
Grade 10 Writing Assignment

Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on Martin Luther King’s most important contribution to this society. Illustrate your work with a neat cover page. Neatness counts.

a work in poor schools would earn cs in affluent schools
‘A’ Work in Poor Schools Would Earn ‘Cs’ in Affluent Schools

Source: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in “Prospects: Final Report on Student Outcomes”, PES, DOE, 1997.

good standards can help focus

Good Standards Can Help Focus

But not if they sit on the shelf.

Must be clear and specific about what students should learn at every grade level.

high performing districts elementary school curriculum
High Performing Districts: Elementary School Curriculum
  • Usually common across schools;
  • Model lessons that teachers may use.
high performing districts
High Performing Districts:
  • District-wide benchmark or snap-shot assessments, at least every 6-9 weeks;
  • Task pools on which teachers may draw in building their own assessments;
  • Support for teachers to learn more about assessment strategies; and,
  • Creation of vehicles for teachers to meet together to discuss assignments and student work.
high performing districts also act on results from benchmark assessments
High Performing Districts also ACT on results from benchmark assessments
  • if data show that student isn’t achieving, student gets extra;
  • if data show that many students in one classroom aren’t achieving, teacher gets extra support.
element 5 leading districts states provide extra instruction for students who need it

Element 5: Leading Districts, States Provide Extra Instruction for Students Who Need It

when kids are behind schools must provide more instruction and support
When Kids Are Behind, Schools Must Provide More Instruction and Support:
  • Kentucky provides extra time for struggling students in high-poverty schools
  • Maryland offers extra dollars for 7th and 8th graders who need more support
and if you don t live in a smart state

And if you don’t live in a smart state?

Many schools, districts finding ways to double, even triple, amount of time spent on literacy, math.

accordingly smart states districts do two important things

Accordingly, smart states, districts do two important things:

STOP drive-by workshops;

invest in intensive, focused

professional development.

classes in high poverty high schools more often taught by misassigned teachers
Classes in High Poverty High Schools More Often Taught by Misassigned* Teachers

*Teachers who lack a major or minor in the field

Source: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, What Matters Most: Teaching for America’s Future (p.16) 1996.

math and science classes of mostly minority students are more often taught by misassigned teachers
Math and Science Classes of Mostly Minority Students Are More Often Taught by Misassigned Teachers

Source: Jeannie Oakes. Multiplying Inequalities: The Effects of Race, Social Class, and Tracking on Opportunities to Learn Mathematics and Science (Rand: 1990)

poor and minority students get more inexperienced teachers
Poor and Minority Students Get More Inexperienced* Teachers

*Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience. “High” and “low” refer to top and bottom quartiles.

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring Quality: An Indicators Report,” December 2000.

high poverty schools get more low scoring teachers
High-Poverty Schools Get More Low-Scoring* Teachers

*Teachers scoring in the bottom quartile on on SAT/ACT. “High-poverty” schools have 2/3 or more

students eligible for reduced-price lunch.

Source: Education Week, “Quality Counts 2001,” January 2001.

slide113

“By our estimates from Texas schools, having an above average teacher for five years running can completely close the average gap between low-income students and others.”John Kain and Eric Hanushek

the challenge ahead

The Challenge Ahead:

NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND

statement of purpose
Statement of Purpose

“Closing the achievement gap between high- and low-performing children, especially the achievement gaps between minority and nonminority students, and between disadvantaged children and their more advantaged peers.”

20 U.S.C. § 6301

slide117

“Requiring every group of students in every school to be proficient within 12 years, is like asking every kid to jump the Grand Canyon.”

–educator, Connecticut

June 10, 2002

Associated Press

slide118

"It is so inflexible. If any group of kids fails to meet the standard, the whole school is labeled as failing.”

–suburban superintendent

(used to doing extremely well under old system of averages)

slide119

“These are what statisticians call ‘outliers’—unexplained exceptions in any field that do not provide models that can be successfully emulated. Michael Jordan, for example, is an outlier: that he can play at such a level does not mean that any basketball player with good training can do so.”

-Richard Rothstein

The New York Times

April 10, 2002

slide120

"I have difficulty with the standards because they're so unattainable for so many of our students . . . We just don't have the same kids they have on Long Island or Orchard Park.”

–Superintendent, New York October 21, 2002, The Buffalo News

slide121

“They may as well have decreed that pigs can fly . . . I think the State Board of Education is dealing with reality, not myth. Some of these politicians just have their heads in the sand.”

-Wayne Johnson, CTA President

Los Angeles Times

August 6, 2002

think about the messages in what they say
Think about the messages in what they say…
  • To parents…about whose kids matter;
  • To students…about how much educators think they can learn; and,
  • To teachers…about whether they even have to try.
slide124

"We know the bar will always be raised. I call it a forklift, not a cart, because it's going forward and going up. But we are here to educate children, and we should have our standards raised."

–Martha Stone, assistant superintendent of curriculum and instruction, Irving School District, TX

slide125

"Neither poverty nor race is an excuse. All children can rise to the standards and there are many schools in the data that you have to prove it.”

–Rick Mills, Commissioner of Education, New York. March 28, 2002, New York Times

slide126

“With proper instruction, students here can blow other kids away in the humanities. The more you challenge them, the better they'll do.”

–Dolores Edwards Sullivan, an English teacher in the predominantly African American Roosevelt school district, whose 11th graders are starting to earn higher marks on state Regents exams.

slide127

“Yes, parents may have the greatest impact on how their children come to us. But we have the greatest impact on how they leave us.”

–Superintendent, North Carolina

slide128

"If you love children, you can't say this law is a waste. . . It has to come down to someone making sure these kids are getting an education.”

–Denise Allen, Kentucky

November 13, 2002, Lexington Herald Leader

slide129

"At the end of the day, we are responsible for every child. Will we do it? Certainly. Will we look good early on? I doubt it."

–Superintendent, Wake CountyJune 2, 2002 News and Observer (NC)

slide130
Yes, this is going to be hard. But how we communicate will play a large role in whether people will even try.
slide131

This is especially critical for education researchers.New BRT poll suggest public trusts researchers MORE than any other source…except teachers.

the education trust

The Education Trust

For More Information . . .

www.edtrust.org

Washington, DC: 202-293-1217

Oakland, CA: 510-465-6444