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Warm Up!. What are the 2 parts that make up the scientific name of a species? Using the cladogram, which animals have claws/nails? Which animals have fur/mammary glands? To what is the chimp most closely related to?. Is a hippopotamus more closely related to a pig or a whale?.

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warm up
Warm Up!
  • What are the 2 parts that make up the scientific name of a species?
  • Using the cladogram, which animals have claws/nails?
  • Which animals have fur/mammary glands?
  • To what is the chimp most closely related to?
hippos are closely related to whales
Hippos are closely related to whales!
  • Based on physical comparisons (particularly dental structure & number of toes) it was originally thought that hippos were most closely related to pigs!
  • BUT DNA analysis indicates that hippos are more closely related to whales!
the evolutionary link
The Evolutionary Link
  • Whales & hippos had a common water-loving ancestor 50-60 millions years ago that evolved & split into 2 groups:

The pig-like Anthracotheres (died out less than 2.5 mya, leaving only the hippo as a descendent)

The Cetaceans (whales, dolphins, & porpoises)

remember
Remember!
  • Cladograms are used to organize organisms based on evolutionary relationships (phylogeny).
  • In other words, who is related to who & where did we come from?
how are cladograms constructed
How are cladograms constructed?
  • Organisms are grouped together based on their derived characteristics.
creating a cladogram
Creating a Cladogram
  • You will be given a table of derived characteristics.
step 1 create a venn diagram
Step 1 – Create a Venn Diagram
  • How many organisms are you comparing?
    • This number will equal the number of circles in your Venn diagram.
  • Count the number of characteristics each organism has.
    • This will be the order that you place the organisms in the Venn diagram.