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World War I. World History Chapter 27. Causes of The Great War. 6 Causes of WWI 1. Imperialism – intense rivalries for colonies 2. Need for new markets 3. Nationalism – pride in one’s country 4. Competition for colonies in Africa and India 5. European rivalries

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world war i

World War I

World History

Chapter 27

causes of the great war
Causes of The Great War
  • 6 Causes of WWI
    • 1. Imperialism – intense rivalries for colonies
    • 2. Need for new markets
    • 3. Nationalism – pride in one’s country
    • 4. Competition for colonies in Africa and India
    • 5. European rivalries
    • 6. Militarism – growth of mass armies
  • As rivalries among European nations grew, armies also grew
  • In the 1890’s Germany began to enlarge its navy in order to rival Great Britain
  • Russia = 1.3 mill; France, Germany 900,000; Britain, Italy, Austro-Hungary 250-500, 000 troops
before the great war
Before The Great War
  • Armies continued to mass
  • After the war broke out, numbers increased further because of conscriptions (military draft)
  • Slavic minorities in the Balkans, Irish in the UK, and Poles in Russian empire wanted their own country
  • Europe was divided into two loose alliances:
    • Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy created the Triple Alliance
    • Great Britain, France, and Russia formed the Triple Entente
  • The alliances would set the stage for the war to come
the spark of war
The Spark of War
  • In June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was touring Bosnia in an open top car when he was assassinated by Serbian nationalist GavriloPrincip in the streets of Sarajevo (the capital of Bosnia)
  • Austria offered to forgive the incident if Serbia went along with a few demands they knew no one would accept and Serbia didn't
  • Austria-Hungary quickly declared war on Serbia. Germany quickly offered support to Austria, and Russia honored its alliance with Serbia
alliances were formed
Alliances were formed
  • Because of the alliances already set up, war quickly broke out
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey became the Central Powers
  • Meanwhile, Great Britain, France, Russia and others became the Allied Powers
  • At first, Germany was the successful aggressor taking over much territory in France
  • Eventually, they became locked into trench warfare on the western front and the war stalled at the First Battle of the Marne
trench warfare
Trench warfare
  • See video (3 MINS)
  • For soldiers who avoided death, the trenches were a nightmare
  • Rats and lice were prevalent
  • Rain flooded the trenches
  • Disease and unsanitary conditions bred disease and sickness that claimed almost as many lives as the fighting did
  • Many soldiers faked illness or shot themselves to avoid staying in the trenches
meanwhile in the u s
Meanwhile in the U.S.
  • At first U.S. is neutral to war
  • Many sympathize with U.K. and the Allies
  • U.S. even sold weapons to the U.K.
  • Germany got mad and sank a bunch of ships (including a passenger liner called the Lusitania) with their U-boats (submarines)
  • British propaganda had a great influence on Americans. Stories about German atrocities-brutal acts against defenseless civilians - angered Americans. (They did not realize that many of the stories were exaggerated or not true.)
the zimmermann note
The Zimmermann Note
  • In January 1917, Arthur Zimmermann sent a secret telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico
  • In the Zimmerman note, Germany offered to help Mexico regain Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas if Mexico would help fight on Germany’s side
  • The British intercepted the telegram and decoded it and it was then published in American newspapers.
  • Americans were enraged.
  • When revolutionaries in Russia overthrew the czarist government, president Wilson went to Congress and said “the world must be made safe for democracy”
  • On April 6, 1917, Congress voted to declare war on Germany
meanwhile in russia
Meanwhile in Russia
  • World War I showed Russia’s economic weaknesses
  • Along with that The Russian government was corrupt, and could not deal with the problems of the modern warfare
  • By the spring of 1917 the Russian people had lost faith in their government and Czar
  • The royal family was imprisoned and the rule of the Russian aristocracy had come to an end
  • With the overthrow of the czar, a temporary government was set up to rule Russia until a constitutional assembly could be elected
russian revolution
Russian Revolution
  • Two factions fought for control of the soviets, the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks
  • The leader of the Bolsheviks wasVladimir Lenin a revolutionary socialist and Marxist
  • On November 17, 1917 Bolsheviks overthrew the provisional government and controlled Russia in 1918 renamed themselves the Communist party
  • Communists renamed the land they ruled the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the Soviet Union
  • This set the stage for the future: The Cold War
the defeat of the central powers
The Defeat of the Central Powers
  • At the end of May the Germans reached the Marne River just 37 miles from Paris
  • At the same time there were thousands of American troops landing in France every day and Britain had set up blockades in the Atlantic Ocean to prevent Germany from gaining supplies
  • The Germans were stopped short and the allies began to counter attack
  • Allied forces were pushing the Germans back and in September Bulgaria surrendered
  • They were quickly followed by the Turks
  • By October the Austria-Hungary Empire had stopped fighting; they broke up and formed separate governments
defeat continued
Defeat Continued…
  • Wilson told German leaders that he would only deal with leaders that represented the German people
  • The Kaiser gave up the throne in November and a German republic was announced
  • In 1918 the German Republic signed an armistice that on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month 1918 all fighting would stop
  • Germany had to turn over all of their munitions, submarines and war prisoners
  • And the allies would occupy the territory west of the Rhine – the war was over
the costs of world war i
The Costs of World War I
  • The costs of WW I were very high
  • It left an estimated 8.5-10 million soldiers dead and another 21million wounded
  • Germany suffered the most casualties with 1.8 million dead or wounded with Russia close behind
  • France lost over 1.4 million soldiers
  • Civilian casualties were also very high due to things like Naval blockades, Military encounters, famine and disease had all taken their toll
  • The Financial loss has been estimated at more than 300 billion dollars
peace talks
Peace talks
  • Woodrow Wilson (U.S.), David Lloyd George (U.K.) Georges Clemenceau (France) and Vittrio Orlando (Italy) became known as the Big Four
  • They were the leaders of the Allied Powers
  • Held a conference in Paris
  • Wilson created the Fourteen Points (a plan to bring peace and stability to the region)
  • After 6 months of negotiations, the Treaty of Versailles was signed
  • Signed on June 28th, 1919
  • The Treaty carved large chunks of land from Germany, placed restrictions on the Government and made them pay reparations
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • The Germans strongly objected to paying reparationsdenying that they were alone in starting the war
  • The Alsace Lorraine region was returned to France, Poland was restored as an independent nation, and Belgium gained some territory
  • Germany had to stop its military draft and the Navy could only have a few warships and no submarines
  • Their Military was not allowed to manufacture heavy artillery, tanks or Military airplanes
  • The allies did not have the ability to enforce this
  • WWII would result