Chapter 2—The French in North America Social Studies 7
Key Terms • Colony- territory owned or controlled by another country • Empire- network of colonies controlled by a single country Critical thinking:Why would one country want/need to seek out new territory and attempt to control it?
European Imperialism • Scandinavians (Vikings) first to “discover” North America—landed on Newfoundland as early as 9th century, but left without settling. • Eventually, interest in and competition for North America increased—leading to exploration by Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, British, and French.
What drove European Imperial Expansion? • Economics • Competition • Religion • Curiosity
Economics • North America provided a bountiful supply of natural resources. Establishing territory helped empires ensure that they had a consistent supply of animal furs (beaver in particular), lumber, fish, and minerals. Critical thinking: Why did European nations have to travel to North America to harvest these resources?
Competition • Militarism helped to motivate European nations to colonize new territory. The colonies generated resources and money, which helped to fund each nation’s militaries and navies. • A nation’s wealth and prestige were also sources of pride for many monarchs.
Religion • The majority of Europe was Christian, while there were two major branches: the Protestants (British) and the Catholics(French, Spanish, Italian , etc.) Each branch wanted to spread its own version of Christianity across the globe.
Curiosity • Many Europeans wanted to know just what was on the other side of the ocean. New developments in navigation, shipbuilding, and preserving food enabled them to travel further than previously possible.
French Interest in North America • Colonization was not the initial goal for the French—they were at first looking for a passage through N.A. to Asia to tap into their markets. • Exploratory missions eventually turned into settlement and colonization—unsuccessful at first.
Jacques Cartier’s First Voyage • Cartier was the first French explorer to land on and explore North America. He attempted to settle a small colony, but it was not long-lasting. • Sent to cross the Atlantic by Francois I, King of France, Cartier set sail in 1534 and arrived in Newfoundland, following the shoreline to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. He eventually encountered (and traded with) the Mi’kmaq.
Jacques Cartier’s First Voyage • Moving further inland, Cartier made contact with a Haudenosaunee community. After trading and living with them shortly, Cartier took two of the Donnaconna’s (the group’s leader) sons back to France with him to help prove his “discovery”, and finance another trip back to North America.
Jacques Cartier’s Second Journey • When Cartier and his men returned, they built a small settlement in which to stay for the winter. Without proper supplies, however, many of the men were in danger of death by scurvy (to which a few had already died). • The Haudenosaunee taught the French to cure scurvy with natural remedies—without their help, the explorers may not have survived the winter.