The French and Indian War Pittsburgh (Seven Years War)
Cause of French & Indian War Study the map and describe one cause of the French and Indian War?
Population and Economic Push Into the Ohio Valley Causes of French & Indian War From the Diagram, list two causes of the French and Indian War?
The French and Indian Wars are Combination of Wars • The Seven Years War • King William's War • Queen Anne’s War • King George’s War • The French and Indian War Remember, rivalries in Europe always spill over into the Colonies.
General Braddock to the Rescue Mission: To rid the Ohio Valley of the French Invaders. Strength: 1400 British Regulars; smaller number of Colonial Militia
Braddock “halted to level every mole hill and to erect bridges over every brook by which means we were four days getting twelve miles” (Washington) Braddock’s Dilemma: Tried to fight a European style war in the wilderness of Pennsylvania.
Braddock’s force is routed and retreats in disarray. During the battle on July 9th Braddock is mortally wounded. Braddock dies and is buried in the middle of the road he built and the remainder of his army marches over him to hide the grave from the French and their allies.
Braddock's Misson • Failed to secure Ft. Duquesne (Pittsburgh). • Suffered over 1000 Casualties, including himself. • Washington to the rescue again.
Britain Declares War on France • Alliance with Prussia (Germans). • Prussia v France and its Allies in Europe. • Britain fought France in the Caribbean, India, and North America. • British suffer many losses in the early years of the war: Settlements are attacked; lose forts on Lake Ontario and Lake George.
Braddock Bungles French Forge Ahead in Upstate New York Frontier Settlements Abandoned New Direction and More Troops Needed
Question: What does it take to fight a war? Beans & Bullets Men & Equipment
Rising Star Selected to Secretary of State Treasury to be used to secure the Colonies Wanted: New Officers for a new type of war.
William Pitt The right person at the right time, and in the right place can make all the difference. • Secretary of State • Prime Minister • Military Logistician • Excellent Judge of Military Commanders • Global Thinker
Amherst and Wolfe Stem the French Tide Louisbourg Again British Colonials Force the French From Frontenac (Kingston, Ont.) 1758
Braddock Avenged: Duquesne Now Ft. Pitt 1758
Wolfe Conquers Quebec French Blind-Sided Through the Plains of Abraham 1759
General Wolfe Mortally Wounded
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham September 13, 1759 (250yrs ago) Quebec
Background • Seven Year’s War – both Europe and North America (1756-1763) • In Canada, early French success, more manpower and forts • Later (1758-1759), British success – more money, soldiers are allotted, power of Royal Navy • By 1759, New France faced odds of nearly 3 to 1 in terms of ships, 4 to 1 in terms of regular soldiers, and 10 to 1 in money
Main Players • James Wolfe – commander of British invasion fleet sent to take Quebec • Invasion force = 13,500 men, 4000 in strike force (mostly regular soldiers)
Main Players • France – Marquis de Montcalm • Approximately 4500 men (mostly militiamen)
Problems with French Defense • West side of city walls facing the Plains of Abraham had no gun reinforcements • Left undefended the south bank of the river opposite the city and shortly after their arrival, the British established batteries there and were able to launch attacks • Under cover of fire, Royal Navy could transport its ships up the river without counterattack
Summer 1759 • All summer British took garrisons all around modern day provinces of Quebec and Ontario • Devastated the parishes around Quebec city. On the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, the British destroyed 1000 buildings as well as the Canadiens’ harvest
Battle Preparations • Wolfe wanted to force Montcalm into an open, European-style battle, but was running out of time – the Navy had to go back to Britain for the winter • However, he found a small cove called Anse au Foulon from which a narrow goat path led up the steps of the cliff to Quebec garrison • French believed no force could climb the narrow path so left it undefended
French Mistakes • French failed to establish a password for a French convoy expected to bring supplies on the night of September 12 • The British attack was a complete surprise – French sentries on the shore thought that the boats gliding past them were part of the French convoy (was actually cancelled) and Wolfe had those soldiers who could speak French answer the French sentries in their own language
Ready for Attack • In total, 3 landing ships reached the shore • The advance force of Scottish Highlanders walked up the steep path, two by two, and, without detection, gained the summit of the cliffs and overpowered the French post there
Wolfe’s Luck • Wolfe’s risks paid off • The sentries did not recognize the British in time because the convoy had been expected • His difficult landing was successful and without problems
The Plains of Abraham • Wolfe deployed 4500 troops on the Plains of Abraham, the grassy field near the unarmed western walls of the fort • Montcalm makes a fatal error- Instead of waiting for Colonel de Bougainville to arrive with 3000 regulars stationed at Cap Rouge, 15 km upstream, he impulsively attacks
The Battle Unfolds • British strategies – Three quarters of men deployed in one line in a concentration of firepower • When the French army was only 40m away, the command to fire was given and the French were devastated, their lines in chaos • One volley later, they retreated up the St. Lawrence River • Battle lasted less than 30 minutes • The two forces were numerically equal, however, the British force was composed of regulars and the French, poorly trained militiamen
British Casualties • Approximate-ly 650 men • Wolfe was shot and killed on the battlefield
French Casualties • Approximately 650 men • Montcalm was also wounded in battle and died from his wounds the next morning • By September 18, the fort at Quebec, short of provisions and soldiers and weakly fortified on its west side, was surrendered
Repercussions • The battle was a serious blow to the French, but all was not lost on September 13 • France still controlled the rest of the St. Lawrence valley and its army was still in tact • Contrary to popular belief, the Battle of the Plains of Abraham did not determine New France’s fate. It was a naval battle fought at Quiberon Bay off the coast of France during which the British navy’s destruction of the French fleet later prevented France from sending a rescue force to save Canada, that sealed its fate
Repercussions cont’d • During an attempt to recapture Quebec, the French army ran short of ammunitions and supplies and no ship was available to come from France to its aid • Almost one year later, September 18, 1760 – the French surrendered all of New France and the British took the final French stronghold at Montreal
“The Death of General Wolfe” • By British painter, Benjamin West (1738-1820) • Unveiled in London in 1771 • Has been called “absolutely valueless as a historic representation” • Why might historians caution that this painting is an inaccurate depiction of both the battle and Wolfe’s death?
The inscription on the obelisk at Quebec City, erected to commemorate the battle on the Plains of Abraham once read: "Here Died Wolfe Victorious." Now it simply reads: "Here Died Wolfe." Wolfe's defeat of the French led to the British capture of the New France department of Canada, and his "hero's death" made him a legend in his homeland.
The site where Wolfe purportedly fell is marked by a column surmounted by a helmet and sword. An inscription at its base reads, in French and English, "Here died Wolfe - September 13th, 1759." It replaces a large stone which had been placed there by British troops to mark the spot. There is a memorial to Wolfe in Westminster Abbey by Joseph Wilton and a statue of him overlooks the Royal Naval College in Greenwich. A statue also graces the green in his native Westerham, Kent, alongside one of that village's other famous resident, Sir Winston Churchill. At Stowe Landscape Gardens in Buckinghamshire there is an obelisk, known as Wolfe's obelisk, built by the family that owned Stowe as Wolfe spent his last night in England at the mansion. Wolfe is buried under the Church of St Alfege, Greenwich, where there are four memorials to him: a replica of his coffin plate in the floor; The Death of Wolfe, a painting completed in 1762 by Edward Peary; a wall tablet; and a stained glass window. In addition the local primary school is named after him.
A Symbol of Humiliation for Separatists • A statue of Wolfe at the Plains of Abraham was destroyed by the terrorist/separarist group the FLQ (Front du Liberation de Quebec) in 1963 for its symbolism of the Conquest of New France and the end of the Quebecois Nation.
Montreal in the Pocket of Amherst French Sue for Peace