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“The Lottery” Shirley Jackson. Notes on the story. Shirley Jackson.

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shirley jackson
Shirley Jackson
  • Shirley Hardie Jackson was born December 14, 1916 in San Francisco, CA. Jackson received her BA in English from Syracuse University.   She married Stanley Edgar Hyman, a staff writer and literary critic at the New Yorker in the 1940s.  She and Hyman had 4 children. Jackson's writing career flourished with publications in The New Yorker, Mademoiselle, Fantasy and Science Fiction, Charm, The Yale Review, The New Republic, The Saturday Evening Post, and Reader's Digest. She also published several collections of stories.  Jackson died of heart failure on August 8th, 1965 in Bennington, VT. 
ancient ritual sacrifice
Ancient Ritual Sacrifice
  • In ancient Athens, Greece, Athenians believed that human sacrifice promised fertile crops.
  • Each year in ancient Athens, as one story goes, during the annual festival called Thargelia, citizens would stone to death a man and a woman selected for this purpose.
  • Death is thought to bring prosperity to the community
  • By transferring one's sins to persons or animals and then sacrificing them, people believed that their sins would be eliminated, a process that has been termed the "scapegoat" archetype
  • A similar ritual sacrifice occurs with Tessie Hutchinson.
  • This explains the village member's remark, “Lottery in June, corn be heavy soon.”
historical context
Historical Context
  • By 1943 news of the Nazi concentration camps had finally reached America.
  • A number of Americans responded with horror and concern that communities could have stood by and silently allowed the Holocaust to occur.
  • Jackson hints at a similar situation in her story when the townspeople are unable to fully question or prevent the brutal lottery practice.
historical sociological context
Historical/Sociological Context
  • During World War II, Jews and other targeted groups were torn from their communities and sent to their death while the world stood by in silence.
  • In “The Lottery,” Tessie is similarly suddenly ostracized from and killed by members of her own community.
  • A few of the townspeople disagree with the ritual, but they merely mutter their displeasure under their breath, afraid to speak out more boldly against the practice.
  • Not only do humans blindly perpetrate evil, the story tells us, but they are also capable of closing their eyes to and even participating in terrors that occur in their midst.
historical context1
Historical Context
  • After World War II America experienced a trend toward general social conformity.
  • People tended to imitate those around them rather than follow their own separate paths.
  • Encouraging this conformity was the spread of television, which broadcast the same set of images to Americans scattered through the country.
  • Meanwhile, patriotic rhetoric dominated the public mood in politics. Fears about fascist dictatorships and communism, issues that had been highlighted by the war-induced paranoia and suspicion among seemingly peaceful American communities.
  • In the story, the townspeople are swept away by the tide of conformity, and the lottery goes ahead as always.
let he who is without sin cast the first stone
“Let he who is without sin, cast the first stone"
  • “The Lottery” certainly alludes to Gospel of St. John, 8:7, in which Jesus frees an adulterous woman, directing the scribe/Pharisee who is without sin to cast the first stone. No one throws stones at her.
  • Unfortunately, no one in “The Lottery” rebukes the powers so forthrightly as Jesus does in John 8:7.Tessie becomes their scapegoat; she pays for their sins.
ritual without meaning
Ritual without meaning
  • Because there has "always been a lottery“, the villagers feel compelled to continue this horrifying tradition.
  • They focus, however, on its gruesome rather than its symbolic nature, for they "still remembered to use stones" even after they have "forgotten the ritual and lost the original black box“.
  • The story may be saying that humanity's inclination toward violence overshadows society's need for civilized traditions.
themes
Themes
  • (almost done…)
  • Not all rituals are beneficial, positive or civilized
  • Acts of violence, hatred, murder are not acceptable just because many people participate
  • Traditions and rituals should be questioned; group mentality can be harmful
  • People are not all good or all evil but a mixture of both.
  • Blindly following tradition without questioning the logic behind it can lead to reckless and disturbed behavior.
foreshadowing
Foreshadowing…
  • Some of the boys create a "great pile of stones in one corner of the square."
  • the men of the village arrive they stand away from the stones, joke quietly, and smile instead of laugh.
  • Etc… (you needed to go through the story and find all the adjectives as well as other aspects of
irony
irony
  • in general, a discrepancy between appearances and reality.
three types of irony
Three Types of Irony
  • __verbal irony____
  • occurs when someone says one thing but really means something else.
  • Donkey: Can I stay with you? Please?
  • Shrek: Of course.
  • Donkey: Really?
  • Shrek: NO.
  • Donkey: Please. I don't wanna go back there. You don't know what it's like to be considered a freak...
three types of irony1
Three Types of Irony
  • __situational irony____
  • takes place when there is a discrepancy between what is expected to happen, or what would be appropriate to happen, and what really does happen.
three types of irony2
Three Types of Irony
  • __dramatic irony____
  • is so called because it is often used on stage. In this kind of irony, a character in the play or story thinks one thing is true, but the audience or reader knows better.
questions on the lottery
Questions on “The Lottery”
  • How is the title ironic?
  • How is the setting ironic?
  • Where is evidence of foreshadowing?
  • What are dominant symbols? What do they represent?
  • What are messages about the human condition?
allegorical allusion names
Allegorical Allusion: Names
  • Tessie Hutchinson: Most likely an allusion to Anne Hutchinson (1591-1643), American religious enthusiast who founded the Puritan colony of Rhode Island. She had new theological views which opposed her to other ministers. After a local trial banished her she was tried before the Boston Church and formally excommunicated. Anne and fifteen of her children were subsequently murdered by the Indians in 1643.
  • The parallelism between her story and Tessie's is clear: to her, excommunication meant spiritual death just as to Tessie being cast out from the group = death.
allegorical allusion names1
Allegorical Allusion: Names
  • Tessie Hutchinson:
  • Anti-ritualAnn Hutchinson held that neither church nor state was needed to connect a believer to his or her God. (In the end, Tessie rejects the lottery ritual, saying “it isn’t right.”)
  • Tessie, diminutive for Theresa, derives from the Greek theizein, meaning “to reap”, or, if the nickname is for Anastasia, it will translate literally “of the resurrection”. (sacrifice for sins; contrast with Delacroix—“of the cross.”)
allegorical allusion names2
Allegorical Allusion: Names
  • Martin: associated with Mars, the Roman god of fertility and war. The following are just FYI:
  • St. Martin: Patron of drunkards, to save them from falling into danger. (The origin came from St. Martin’s day coinciding with the feast of Bacchus, god of wine.)
  • St. Martin’s goose. The 11th of November, St. Martin’s Day, was at one time the great goose feast of France. The legend is that St. Martin was annoyed by a goose, which he ordered to be killed and served up for dinner. He died after eating dinner, and a goose has been ever since “sacrificed” to him on the anniversary.
  • St. Martin’s bird is the raven, long associated with death and departed spirits
allegorical allusion names3
Allegorical Allusion: Names
  • Adams : reference to the first man, the first sinner
  • While he seems to be one of the few who questions the lottery when he mentions that another village is thinking about giving up the ritual, he stands at the front of the crowd when the stoning of Tessie begins. Like the biblical Adam,Adams goes along with the sin; he follows others in their evil.
symbolism names
Symbolism: Names
  • Summers:the season of summer is associated with youth, strength, growth, prime of life, warmth, leisure, prosperity, happiness, blooming, blossoming
  • Mr Summers is the head of the coal business, which could symbolize close contacts with the underworld, evil; lurking just beneath the surface.
  • Coal is earthly (as opposed to heavenly); black; formed in the process of many years (long-term process); formed from compressed, decaying matter; early chemistry used a black spot to symbolize coal.
  • Marxist critics point out how Mr. Summers, who would have been one of the wealthier citizens, leads the lottery— those with money control the people’s activities.
symbolism names1
Symbolism: Names
  • Delacroix(“of-the-Cross”)
  • vulgarized to Della-croy(no longer truly of the cross)
  • Some critics suggest that Mrs. Delacroix represents the duality of human nature: she is pleasant and friendly on the outside, but underneath she possesses a degree of savagery.
  • Crosshas many connotations crossroads (faced with 2 directions); to cross something off; to be angry; to cross over or to pass by; pass from one side of to the other; to oppose, as in crossing one’s path; a burden; combination of 2 elements; To make or put a line across; To betray or deceive, double-cross…
symbolism names2
Symbolism: Names
  • Graves : the obvious grave = place of entombment/death
  • Mr. Graves quietly assists Mr. Summers, with “Graves” hinting at a dark undertone.
  • Grave = serious; hints that the lottery may not be a frivolous contest (“Mr. Graves said gravely”)
  • Critics have said that Jackson creates balance by juxtaposing Mr. Summers and Mr. Graves to share in the responsibilities of the ritual: Life brings death, and death recycles life.
symbolism names3
Symbolism: Names
  • Old Man Warner:Resistant to change and representing the old social order, he warns about how important the event is to the survival of the village.
  • Old man Warner is 77 years old the number 7 has many connotations, but one common connotation is that 7 is lucky …he has been lucky to avoid the lottery so many times.
symbolism names4
Symbolism: Names
  • Dunbar: breaking this name down into its 2 syllables, one can come up with:
  • 1. dun – to treat cruelly; or a dull, brownish gray color
  • 2. bar - Something that impedes or prevents action or progress; relatively long, straight, rigid piece of solid material used as a barrier, support, or fastener; A standard, expectation, or degree of requirement;
symbolism
Symbolism
  • Stonesare a universal symbol for punishment, burial, and martyrdom: they indicate a morbid ceremony.
symbolism1
Symbolism
  • Black: the color for death, mourning, punishment, penitence in western civilization.
  • The black box used to draw lots and the slip of paper with a black mark pointing out the 'winner' are mentioned too frequently to be coincidental.
  • Black box: coffin? Evil secret hidden away?
  • Black spot on paper: sin? A “black mark” on one’s record is negative; black mark: unclean?
pov 3 rd person objective
POV: 3rd Person Objective
  • There is very little conflict in the story—only Tessie’s objections present any conflict at all.
  • At the end of "The Lottery," the reader discovers with horror what is about to happen, but the story ends with the casting of the first stones. Jackson prefers to leave the gruesome details to the reader's imagination.
  • The conflict occurs within the reader as the reader notes foreshadowing in the story with growing uneasiness
why are all the characters flat and static
Why are all the characters flat and static?
  • If the characters are round and change we care about them and the conflict become external. Jackson wants the reader to focus on his or her internal feelings of distress and conflict.
study handout
Study Handout
  • The Principle Rhetorical Figures: irony, hyperbole, and oxymoron
  • RHETORICAL FIGURES (figurative language that changes the tone or emphasis of a statement without changing the meaning of individual words).
  • rhetoric: (n) language with a persuasive or impressive effect