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Andrew Jackson. The Defender of “the Union” or “the Common Man”. Rant Quiz:. The Tariff of 1828 is sometime referred to as the Tariff of _________________________. He was Andrew Jackson’s Vice-President until wrote the “South Carolina Exposition” and openly fought with the President.

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andrew jackson

Andrew Jackson

The Defender of “the Union” or “the Common Man”

rant quiz
Rant Quiz:
  • The Tariff of 1828 is sometime referred to as the Tariff of _________________________.
  • He was Andrew Jackson’s Vice-President until wrote the “South Carolina Exposition” and openly fought with the President.
  • The theory of ___________________ would allow individual states to determine if a law was constitutional or not.
  • Robert Hayne of South Carolina and this Senator from Massachusetts engaged in a week-long debate over states’ rights and the tariff question.
  • A compromise tariff was proposed by this Kentucky Congressman in 1833 that helped to avoid a civil war with South Carolina.
jackson s dilemma
Jackson’s dilemma
  • An unintended consequence of increased democratic practice was a renewed call for power at the state and local level, not the central government.

Explain why this happened?

Why might this a problem for Jackson?

  • Jackson, as head of the Executive Branch, must keep the central government strong while trying to support the will and power of the “common man.”
jackson s view of union
Jackson’s View of “Union”
  • Andrew Jackson and the Democratic Party believed democracy could only be preserved when order was maintained. This order required a strong “Union” or connection between the states.
  • According to Jackson, maintaining the “Union” depended on a strict adherence to the rules and “supremacy” of the US Constitution.

How might Jackson’s background explain this belief?

  • Any person or idea that threatened the “Union” was seen as dangerous.
  • Jackson felt that, as President, he needed to protect democracy by promoting a strong sense of nationalism.
sectionalism threatens union
Sectionalism threatens Union
  • By 1828, the spirit of nationalism that existed among the states was beginning to erode.
  • Henry Clay’s American System and especially its protective tariff on imported goods contributed to the rise of sectionalism.

Why? How did tariff affect the states differently?

  • Every four years the tariff rates rose. The Tariff of 1828 became so objectionable to Southern politicians that they referred to it as the

Tariff of Abominations

nullification and john c calhoun
Nullification and John C. Calhoun
  • John C. Calhoun, Jackson’s Vice-President, was from the state of South Carolina. Although he supported the tariff in 1816, the concerns of the voters in his state helped to change his opinion by 1828.
  • In response to the Tariff of Abominations, Calhoun revived the theory of “nullification.” (IS THIS NEW?)
  • Calhoun secretly advocated for this theory in the “South Carolina Exposition.” (WHY?)
  • In Jan. 1830, the theory of nullification and states’ rights were debated in the Senate between Robert Hayne (SC) and Daniel Webster (MA). WEBSTER-HAYNE DEBATES
  • Calhoun’s obvious support of Hayne caused a major problem between Jackson and his Vice-President.
the nullification crisis
The Nullification Crisis
  • In 1832, the Tariff of 1828 was set to expire. Congress approved of a new tariff with lower rates.
  • Despite the lower rate, South Carolina’s state legislature declared the tariff as “null, void and no law” within its borders.
  • Jackson was furious --- “I will hang the first “nullie” I see from the first tree I can find!”
  • Congress passes the Force Bill of 1833 which would give Jackson the power to use the Army and Navy to enforce the tariff.
  • Luckily, Henry Clay is able to avert a civil war by proposing the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually lower tariff rates for the next ten years.
jackson s war of the bank
Jackson’s War of the Bank
  • Although Jackson willing to fight for Union over the idea of States’ Rights, he did not always support national institutions over the “common man.”
  • A very public example of this fact was Andrew Jackson’s opposition to the Second Bank of the United States (BUS).
  • Jackson believed the BUS was:
  • Undemocratic (not everyone could deposit money and get loans)
  • Unfair (State banks could not compete with it)
  • Unethical (Nicholas Biddle gave cheap loans to influential Congressmen
playing in traffic with the bus
Playing in traffic with the BUS
  • During the Election of 1832, Henry Clay was selected by the National-Republicans to run against Andrew Jackson.
  • In an effort to trap Jackson into openly attacking the BUS during the election, Clay and Daniel Webster decided to pass a bill re-chartering the BUS (four years before its original charter would expire).
  • Jackson vetoed it!
  • Jackson won the election of 1832 in a landslide: 219 to 49
  • Jackson used the win as a “mandate” to “kill the bank”
how to kill a bank
How to Kill a Bank
  • Although the re-chartering scheme failed, the BUS still operated under its original charter.
  • Jackson did not have the constitutional power to legally end the BUS, but it did not mean he could try ways to weaken it.
  • Jackson decided to remove all government deposits from the BUS and put them in “pet banks” (politically loyal state banks).
  • After firing two Secretaries of the Treasury who refused to de-fund the BUS, Jackson finally turned to his Attorney General, Roger B. Taney, to do the job.
  • Biddle viciously responded to this attack. By calling in loans and reducing credit, Biddle worsen a slight economic recession for which he, not Jackson, took the blame.
  • The BUS closed shortly after its chartered was refused in 1836.