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Andrew Jackson. The Defender of “the Union” or “the Common Man”. Rant Quiz:. The Tariff of 1828 is sometime referred to as the Tariff of _________________________. He was Andrew Jackson’s Vice-President until wrote the “South Carolina Exposition” and openly fought with the President.

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Andrew jackson

Andrew Jackson

The Defender of “the Union” or “the Common Man”

Rant quiz
Rant Quiz:

  • The Tariff of 1828 is sometime referred to as the Tariff of _________________________.

  • He was Andrew Jackson’s Vice-President until wrote the “South Carolina Exposition” and openly fought with the President.

  • The theory of ___________________ would allow individual states to determine if a law was constitutional or not.

  • Robert Hayne of South Carolina and this Senator from Massachusetts engaged in a week-long debate over states’ rights and the tariff question.

  • A compromise tariff was proposed by this Kentucky Congressman in 1833 that helped to avoid a civil war with South Carolina.

Jackson s dilemma
Jackson’s dilemma

  • An unintended consequence of increased democratic practice was a renewed call for power at the state and local level, not the central government.

    Explain why this happened?

    Why might this a problem for Jackson?

  • Jackson, as head of the Executive Branch, must keep the central government strong while trying to support the will and power of the “common man.”

Jackson s view of union
Jackson’s View of “Union”

  • Andrew Jackson and the Democratic Party believed democracy could only be preserved when order was maintained. This order required a strong “Union” or connection between the states.

  • According to Jackson, maintaining the “Union” depended on a strict adherence to the rules and “supremacy” of the US Constitution.

    How might Jackson’s background explain this belief?

  • Any person or idea that threatened the “Union” was seen as dangerous.

  • Jackson felt that, as President, he needed to protect democracy by promoting a strong sense of nationalism.

Sectionalism threatens union
Sectionalism threatens Union

  • By 1828, the spirit of nationalism that existed among the states was beginning to erode.

  • Henry Clay’s American System and especially its protective tariff on imported goods contributed to the rise of sectionalism.

    Why? How did tariff affect the states differently?

  • Every four years the tariff rates rose. The Tariff of 1828 became so objectionable to Southern politicians that they referred to it as the

    Tariff of Abominations

Nullification and john c calhoun
Nullification and John C. Calhoun

  • John C. Calhoun, Jackson’s Vice-President, was from the state of South Carolina. Although he supported the tariff in 1816, the concerns of the voters in his state helped to change his opinion by 1828.

  • In response to the Tariff of Abominations, Calhoun revived the theory of “nullification.” (IS THIS NEW?)

  • Calhoun secretly advocated for this theory in the “South Carolina Exposition.” (WHY?)

  • In Jan. 1830, the theory of nullification and states’ rights were debated in the Senate between Robert Hayne (SC) and Daniel Webster (MA). WEBSTER-HAYNE DEBATES

  • Calhoun’s obvious support of Hayne caused a major problem between Jackson and his Vice-President.

The nullification crisis
The Nullification Crisis

  • In 1832, the Tariff of 1828 was set to expire. Congress approved of a new tariff with lower rates.

  • Despite the lower rate, South Carolina’s state legislature declared the tariff as “null, void and no law” within its borders.

  • Jackson was furious --- “I will hang the first “nullie” I see from the first tree I can find!”

  • Congress passes the Force Bill of 1833 which would give Jackson the power to use the Army and Navy to enforce the tariff.

  • Luckily, Henry Clay is able to avert a civil war by proposing the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually lower tariff rates for the next ten years.

Jackson s war of the bank
Jackson’s War of the Bank

  • Although Jackson willing to fight for Union over the idea of States’ Rights, he did not always support national institutions over the “common man.”

  • A very public example of this fact was Andrew Jackson’s opposition to the Second Bank of the United States (BUS).

  • Jackson believed the BUS was:

  • Undemocratic (not everyone could deposit money and get loans)

  • Unfair (State banks could not compete with it)

  • Unethical (Nicholas Biddle gave cheap loans to influential Congressmen

Playing in traffic with the bus
Playing in traffic with the BUS

  • During the Election of 1832, Henry Clay was selected by the National-Republicans to run against Andrew Jackson.

  • In an effort to trap Jackson into openly attacking the BUS during the election, Clay and Daniel Webster decided to pass a bill re-chartering the BUS (four years before its original charter would expire).

  • Jackson vetoed it!

  • Jackson won the election of 1832 in a landslide: 219 to 49

  • Jackson used the win as a “mandate” to “kill the bank”

How to kill a bank
How to Kill a Bank

  • Although the re-chartering scheme failed, the BUS still operated under its original charter.

  • Jackson did not have the constitutional power to legally end the BUS, but it did not mean he could try ways to weaken it.

  • Jackson decided to remove all government deposits from the BUS and put them in “pet banks” (politically loyal state banks).

  • After firing two Secretaries of the Treasury who refused to de-fund the BUS, Jackson finally turned to his Attorney General, Roger B. Taney, to do the job.

  • Biddle viciously responded to this attack. By calling in loans and reducing credit, Biddle worsen a slight economic recession for which he, not Jackson, took the blame.

  • The BUS closed shortly after its chartered was refused in 1836.