WRF Modifications (Goddard Suite) and Applications at Goddard GOCART • Water/energy cycle against data from field programs • Semi-Real and Real Time at GPM Super sites and TC4 • Hurricane/Typhoon (Impact of microphysics and land surface on intensity - fine resolution simulation - diurnal cycle?) • Regional Climate (i.e., Monsoon) • Cloud-Aerosol Interactions (transport/precipitation - Asia and USA) Tao et al. (2007) WRF Field Campaigns (MAP, GPM) Satellite Data CloudSat, TRMM Water Cycle (NEWS) Kumar et al. (2007) Blue Boxes: Goddard Physical Packages W. Lau, K. Pickering, A. Hou, C. Mian, S. Braun, W. Lapenta, S. Kumar, T. Matsui,R. Shi C. Peters-Lidard, W.-K. Tao Tao, W.-K., J. Shi, S. Chen, S. Lang, S.-Y. Hong, G. Thompson, C. Peters-Lidard, A. Hou, S. Braun, and J. Simpson, 2007: Revised bulk-microphysical schemes for studying precipitation processes: Part I: Comparison with different microphysical schemes, Mon. Wea. Rev., (submitted). Kumar, S. V., C. D. Peters-Lidard, J. E. Eastman, W.-K. Tao, 2007: An integrated high resolution hydrometeorological modeling system using LIS and WRF, Environmental Modeling & Software, (in press).
GPM C3VP (2007) WRF Cases (high-resolution runs) Katrina (2005) Forest Fire (2007) India - Monsoon (2005-2006) IHOP (2002) TC4 2007
Goddard Microphysics (>12 Different Schemes) CSU RAMs’ 2-Moment: Cloud-Aerosol/Precipitation Interactions (D. Posselt, A. Hou, G. Stephens) NCAR 2-moment: H. Morrison Three-moments: Milbrandt and Yau (2005) No Microphysical Scheme is perfect !
Goddard Bulk Microphysical Scheme • Warm Rain (Soong and Ogura 1973) • Ice-Water Saturation Adjustment (Tao et al. 1989) • 3ICE-Graupel and 3ICE-Hail (Tao and Simpson 1989, 1993; MuCumber et al. 1990) Option 3ICE-Graupel (Rutledge and Hobb 1984) or 3ICE -Hail (Lin et al. 1983) The sum of all the sink processes associated with one species will not exceed its mass - (Water budget balance) All transfer processes from one type of hydrometeor to another are calculated based on one thermodynamic state (ensure all processes are equal) Tao, W.-K., and J. Simpson, 1993: The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model. Part I: Model description. Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 4, 35-72. • 3ICE Modification (Tao et al. 2003) Saturation adjustment Conversion from Ice to Snow • 2ICE scheme (Tao et al. 2003) Ice and Snow • 3ICE-Graupel Modification (Lang et al. 2007) Conversion from cloud to snow Dry growth of graupel Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson, D. Baker, S. Braun, M.-D. Chou, B. Ferrier, D. Johnson, A. Khain, S. Lang, B. Lynn, C.-L. Shie, D. Starr, C.-H. Sui, Y. Wang and P. Wetzel, 2003: Microphysics, radiation and surface processes in the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model, A Special Issue on Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Modeling, Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 82, 97-137. Lang, S., W.-K. Tao, R. Cifelli, W. Olson, J. Halverson, S. Rutledge, and J. Simpson, 2007: Improving simulations of convective system from TRMM LBA: Easterly and Westerly regimes. J. Atmos. Sci.,64, 1141-1164. MM5 WRF <-- GCE Observation CFAD - Radar Reflectivity Improved (WRF) H(km) dBz
Microphysical Schemes • WRF WSM6 (Hong et al. 2004) • WRF Purdue Lin (Chen and Sun 2002) • WRF Thompson (Thompson et al. 2007 - V3) • Goddard 3ICE - Graupel (Tao et al. 2003a; Lang et al. 2007) Tropical Oceanic • Goddard 3ICE - Hail (Tao and Simpson 1993; McCumber etal. 1990) - Mid-latitude Continental • Goddard 2ICE (Tao et al. 2003b) - Winter Snow Storm/Frontal
Thompson Lin WSM6 3ice/graupel 2ICE 3ice/hail Observation GCE 3ICE-Hail simulated a very thin convective line and is in better agreement with observation IHOP 2002 - WRF 1 km grid
qs: snow qg: graupel qs qs WRF Thompson 3ICE-graupel qg qs qg WRF WSM6 2ICE qs qg WRF Purdue-Lin 3ICE-hail Tao, W.-K., J. Shi, S. Chen, S. Lang, S.-Y. Hong, G. Thompson, C. Peters-Lidard, A. Hou, S. Braun, and J. Simpson, 2007: Revised bulk-microphysical schemes for studying precipitation processes: Part I: Comparison with different microphysical schemes, Mon. Wea. Rev., (submitted).
Hurricane Katrina (2005) - 1.67 km grid Minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) Minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) from the observation and five different WRF experiments using different microphysical schemes (00Z 8/27/2005 to 00Z 8/30/2005). Similar temporal variation between model simulated and observed MSLP. All schemes over-estimated MSLP, especially Lin scheme. Lin Lin Tracks for Hurricane Katrina Tracks for Hurricane Katrina (2005) from the observation and five different WRF experiments using different microphysical schemes (from 00Z 8/27/2005 to 00Z 8/30/2005). Good track forecast in 1st 24 h model integration All schemes’ simulated track is far west after landfall
Thompson WSM6 Lin 2ice 3ice/hail 3ice/graupel Goddard 3Ice-graupel appears to agree with observation in eye and outer rain band structure Hurricane Isabel (2003) IR-TRMM
WRF Simulated Radar Reflectivity (1 km grid) 06 Z 1/20 2007 00 Z 1/21 2007 09 Z 1/22 2007 07 Z 1/22 2007 Two Major Snow Events - 1-2 feet snow: A lake (local) effect event (top two) and a synoptic event
Vertical profiles of domain- and 1st 24-hour time-average cloud species (i.e., cloud water, rain, cloud ice, snow and graupel) for the 3ICE (cloud ice, snow and graupel) and 2ICE (cloud ice and snow) 3ICE 2ICE OLarge precipitating particles (rain and graupel) did not form for both experiments <---weak vertical velocity (~50 cm/s). O Similar profiles for cloud water, cloud ice and snow for both experiments. O Goddard 3ICE microphysical scheme did response the cloud dynamic well without producing large size precipitating ice (graupel). O Cloud water presence during snow event has been observed and simulated (also found many other snow events)
Sensitivity of microphysical schemes on the vertical profiles of domain and time-average cloud species (1st 2hh hour integration and for lake snow event) Goddard Lin No cloud ice, little cloud water Snow and graupel at ground WSM6 Thompson No cloud ice Snow and graupel at ground Cloud ice is dominant species, little cloud water
Goddard WRFIn-Line Cloud Statistics - Cloud water and energy budget (convective vs stratiform)Tracer Calculation - Trace gases redistribution by convective updraft and downdraftMicrophysicsNew 3Ice-Graupel2-Moment (cloud-aerosol interactions) - TestingMulti-moment (mass, concentration, shape)Hybrid (Spectral bin and bulk microphysics)Satellite (Earth) simulators (microwave, dual frequency precipitation radar, lidar, cloud radar, IR…) - Need to improve computational performance - documentation.Ocean Model(s)
Thanks Observation More on GCE model microphysics improvement Impact on Global Cloud-Resolving Model New Reducing the overestimate of 40 dBz at higher altitude WRF