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Water Scarcity and Pollution

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  1. Water Scarcity and Pollution General Institute for Water Resources and Hydropower Planning &Design Ministry of Water Resources March 2007

  2. Contents • Water resources in China • The cost estimation of water scarcity caused by water pollution

  3. National water assessment quantity quality utilization pollution ecology responses rules mechanism Water Balance Supply-drainage Ecological balance Pollution load past present future status issues trends National water resources assessment

  4. Water resources in China • Water quantity • Water quality • water use • Water scarcity status

  5. water quantity-calculating basins

  6. Water quantity 108m3 proportion(%)

  7. % 西 20 南 12.85 诸 海 黄 淮 辽 7.45 10 5.95 河 河 河 河 河 2.41 2.21 1.88 区 区 区 区 区 0 松 长 东 珠 西 -1.9 全 -10 国 花 江 南 江 北 -10.4 江 区 诸 区 诸 -14.5 -14.5 -20 区 河 河 区 区 -30 -40 -40.8 -50 The changes of surface water % The surface water decrease significantly during the past 20 years in the North China, as the result of climate change and human activities.

  8. The changes of surface water

  9. % 西 12.2 15 南 7.4 海 黄 淮 诸 10 辽 5.9 河 河 河 河 河 2.5 1.7 1.2 5 区 区 区 区 区 0 松 长 东 珠 西 全 -1.9 -5 国 花 江 南 江 北 -10 江 区 诸 区 诸 -8.5 -9.2 -9.6 区 河 河 -15 区 区 -20 -25 -24.8 -30 The changes of surface and ground water resources %

  10. 劣Ⅴ类 16% 等于或优于Ⅲ类 66% Ⅴ类 6% Ⅳ类 12% 评价类别河长比例图(全年) water quality status River length of assessment was 29×104km, 34% of which water quality was class Ⅳ or worse.

  11. 100 水功能一级区 90 水功能二级区 80 水功能区 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 松花江 辽河 海河 黄河 淮河 长江 其中太湖 东南诸河 珠江 西南诸河 西北诸河 The proportion of water function zone meeting standards The proportions of water function zones meeting standards in the Haihe,Huaihe,Songhuajiang,Liaohe Basin are less than 40 per cent respectively. %

  12. Other water 53 Surface water 4474 1% 79% 20% Groundwater 1106 Water use The total water supply was 5633×108m3 in 2000 供水量组成(亿m3)

  13. 亿m3 年均增长率1.23% 5633 6000 5304 总供水量 4474 4867 5000 4408 4403 地表水 3738 4000 3000 2000 1106 647 地下水 1000 其他 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 The changes of water supply during 1980-2000 亿m3

  14. 海河、辽河、淮河、西北诸河地表供水量不同程度减少,地下供水量增加较大;松花江和黄河区地表、地下水供水量均有增加海河、辽河、淮河、西北诸河地表供水量不同程度减少,地下供水量增加较大;松花江和黄河区地表、地下水供水量均有增加 亿m3 3000 2580 2441 总供水量 2500 2273 2166 1993 2000 地表水 1500 967 1000 地下水 553 500 其他 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 The changes of water supply in the north China 亿m3

  15. % ( ) 140 123 120 101 102 100 80 76 80 66 63 60 60 53 49 41 40 40 22 全国平均18% 16 17 13 20 1 0 松 辽 辽 海 海 海 黄 淮 淮 沂 山 长 太 东 珠 西 西 花 河 河 河 河 河 河 河 河 沭 东 江 湖 南 江 南 北 江 区 流 区 北 南 区 区 水 泗 半 区 流 诸 区 诸 诸 区 域 系 系 系 岛 域 河 河 河 区 区 区 The ratio oftotal use to total water available in 2000 50% 全国水资源开发利用程度总体不高,但南北方差异大,北方地区平均45%,南方地区平均12%

  16. 亿m3 可利用量 2000年一次性开发利用量 Water use equal or exceed to the available water in the north China

  17. water scarcity in different basin (108m3)

  18. Water scarcity status Water scarcity degree

  19. The cost estimation of water scarcity caused by water pollution • Main concerns • Methods to estimate the water scarcity caused by water pollution • The cost of water scarcity • Strategic measures to mitigation

  20. Main concerns • Water scarcity caused by pollution:water scarcity (including groundwater depletion), sources water of supply not meeting standards. • Cost:①Health, ②production, ③ecology, ④increase of treat cost of water supply not meeting standard. Here only ② and ④ considered.

  21. Methods to estimate the quantity of water scarcity caused bypollution (1)The north area ① The quantity of supply of source water which were not meeting standards ② Water scarcity (repressing water demand) ③ Groundwater depletion ④ Available water ⑤ Water quality status

  22. Methods to estimate the quantity of water scarcity caused by pollution (2)The south area ① The quantity of supply of source water which were not meeting standards ② Groundwater depletion ③ Water quality status

  23. The cost of water scarcity caused by water pollution • Water supply (source water) not meeting water quality standards • Groundwater depletion • The value of water in China • The cost of water scarcity related to pollution • Strategy measures to mitigation

  24. water supply (source water) not meeting water quality standards (1)The proportion of source water quality meeting standards to supply

  25. (2)the quantity of water supply not meeting water standards(106m3) water supply (source water) not meeting water quality standards

  26. Groundwater depletion (1)groundwater depletion status The ratios of groundwater depletion to rechargeable groundwater in the North plain area of China during 1900~2000

  27. (2)the quantity of groundwater depletion Groundwater depletion

  28. The value of water in China • Marginal value method 1~5 yuan/m3 • The cost of current mitigation measures The South-North Water Diversion Project1.2~1.3 yuan/m3;The treatment cost 2.6~4.6 yuan/m3 • The value used in this part(CAEP) 3.5~3.9 yuan/m3(Marginal value );

  29. The cost of water scarcity related to pollution (104 Yuan)

  30. Strategy measure to mitigation • Development: Green Economy • Water saving society • Optimization of water allocation • Sewage water treatment • Integrated water resources management

  31. Thanks!