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an overview of the safe drinking water act n.
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  1. An Overview of the Safe Drinking Water Act

  2. Drinking Water Academy • Introductory modules • Overview of the Safe Drinking Water Act • Introduction to the EPA’s Source Protection Programs • Introduction to the Underground Injection Control Program • Introduction to the Public Water Supply Supervision Program • Regulatory modules • Technical modules

  3. Objectives • Explain threats to drinking water • Describe the hydrologic cycle and pathways of contamination • Understand the history of drinking water regulation • Describe the major SDWA programs

  4. Threats to Drinking Water Contaminants and Health Effects

  5. Discussion • What contaminants pose a public health threat to your daily water? • Do threats from public and private water supplies differ? • What are the effects of these potential health threats?

  6. Contaminant Effects • Acute health effects • Chronic health effects • Aesthetic concerns

  7. Types of Pathogens • Viruses (e.g., Norwalk virus, rotaviruses) • Bacteria (e.g., Shigella, E.coli) • Parasites, protozoa and cysts (e.g., Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium)

  8. Bacteria Photo: CDC. E. coli 0157:H7

  9. Viruses Photo: Rotavirus, ASM Digital Collection

  10. Protozoa Giardia Cryptosporidium

  11. Types of Contaminants Causing Chronic Health Effects • Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) • Inorganic chemicals (IOCs) • Synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs) • Radionuclides

  12. Discussion • Where do microbiological and chemical contaminants come from?

  13. The Hydrologic Cycle, Sources of Drinking Water, and Pathways of Contamination

  14. Stream Precipitation Evapotranspiration Surface Runoff Recharge Lake Lake Wetland Riparian Zone Plant Uptake Ground Water Ground Water / Surface Water Interaction

  15. Ground Water Ground Water UNSATURATED ZONE UNSATURATED ZONE WATER TABLE ZONE OF SATURATION

  16. Discussion • Name as many sources of drinking water as possible

  17. Sources of Drinking Water • Surface water • Ground water • Ground water under the direct influence of surface water • Desalinated sea water • Rain water

  18. The Drinking Water Cycle Homes or Businesses Source (aquifer, lake, etc.) Water System Distribution System Sewer Lines Septic System Wastewater Plant Infiltration Discharge

  19. Sources of Contamination ••••

  20. Design A Regulatory Structure A Group Exercise

  21. History Part 1Before 1974

  22. History of Drinking Water Regulation First-known treatment EPA established Regulation as local health issue Early Federal involvement Early State regulations 1974-1996 Early1800’s Mid-1900s 300 BC Early 1900s 1970 Evolving Federal involvement SDWA and amendments enacted Early recognition of water-disease link

  23. Drinking Water Concerns: Early Evidence Hippocrates: boil and strain water Cholera tied to contamination of a well 1846 ~1900 ~300 BC 1854 Chlorination to prevent “child bed fever” Typhoid tied to contaminated water

  24. Early 1900s:Regulating a Local Health Issue State and county programs emerged Large-scale chlorination 1906 Early 1900s 1908 Filtration in Philadelphia

  25. Early Success in Drinking Water Protection Typhoid Deaths Per 100,000 People

  26. Early Treatment Techniques • Disinfection • Chlorination • Slow sand filtration • Large filter beds with relatively slow filtration rate, no chemical coagulation • Removal by sieving and “scavenging”

  27. Source: Dan Fraser

  28. Early Treatment Techniques • Rapid sand filtration • Smaller filter beds with more rapid filtration rate, some chemical coagulation • Relies on destabilization and attachment for removal

  29. Early Monitoring Techniques • Water quality monitoring • Total coliform monitoring • Jackson Candle turbidity measurement

  30. Early State RegulationExample: Montana Montana public water supply statute Statute revised to original form Statute weakened 1907 1911 1915

  31. Early Federal Involvement with Drinking Water PHS “common cup” standards PHS standards for interstate carriers Rivers and Harbors Act 1899 1912 1914

  32. State Multiple Barrier Approach • Multiple barrier approach • Source selection and protection • Treatment • Distribution • Plans and specifications for water systems • Sanitary surveys, training and certification

  33. Expanded Industrial Activity Increases Health Concerns • Industrialization • Discharges of metals and chemicals • Agriculture • Pesticide and fertilizer use • Advent of atomic age • Concerns about radionuclides

  34. Evolving Federal Involvement • Public Health Service (1798) • Ground water protection and chemical pollution • Studies and funding • Indian Health Service (1921) • Water and wastewater facilities • Federal statutes (no enforcement authority) • Water Pollution Control Act of 1948 • Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1956 • Water Quality Act of 1965

  35. EPA Established • Drinking water program moved from Public Health Service to EPA • First inventory of community water systems conducted EPA established December 2, 1970

  36. Hierarchy of Federal Governance STATUTES Congress and President SDWA, CWA EXECUTIVE ORDERS President REGULATIONS EPA and Public LCR, SWTR,CCR POLICY, GUIDANCE and GUIDELINES EPA Op Cert, Capacity Development, DWSRF

  37. History Part 2SDWA 1974-1986

  38. Safe Drinking Water Act 1974 • Impetus for passage • National surveys • Increased concern and awareness • Purpose • Establish national enforceable standards • Require water systems to monitor to ensure compliance SDWA enacted December 16, 1974

  39. Provisions of 1974 SDWA • EPA to promulgate National Primary Drinking Water Regulations • Established the public water system supervision (PWSS), underground injection control (UIC), and sole source aquifer (SSA) programs • Provided for State implementation (primacy)

  40. Provisions of 1974 SDWA (continued) • Gave EPA authority to set drinking water standards • Recommended Maximum Contaminant Level (RMCL) • Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) • Treatment technique

  41. Provisions of 1974 SDWA (continued) • Established three programs: • Public water system supervision (PWSS) • Underground injection control (UIC) • Sole source aquifer (SSA)

  42. Concept of Primacy PWSS Primacy Revision Process up to 2 years (possible extension) State submits complete request State submits draft request EPA promulgates new regs State adopts regs EPA comments to State State has interim primacy from effective date of State regs or submission of complete request, whichever is later up to 90 days EPA notice and comment EPA review and determination EPA approves or disapproves

  43. State Enforcement Programs • States have discretion in enforcement • Actions depend on risk to public health • Preventive actions come first

  44. State Enforcement Programs • Informal actions are less resource-intensive, often effective in achieving compliance • Formality of actions escalates with continued noncompliance

  45. State Enforcement Programs • Formal enforcement actions • Administrative orders and penalties • Judicial decrees • Referral to EPA for enforcement • Joint EPA-State enforcement actions • Independent EPA enforcement actions

  46. Two Major Water Statutes CWA SDWA Wastewater Treatment Plants Water Systems Surface Water Used as Drinking Water Surface Water Used for Industrial Uses, Recreation, Wildlife Habitat, and Fishing Ground Water Ground Water used as Drinking Water Wastewater Discharges

  47. Major Programs of the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System Supervision Underground Injection Control Sole Source Aquifer Protection

  48. What Is a Water System and How Is it Regulated?