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Water

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  1. Water

  2. The Hydrologic Cycle

  3. “Whiskey’s for drinking, water’s for fighting over.”Western saying

  4. The Critical Need: Water

  5. Global Water • Ocean (Salty) 97.2 % • Fresh Water 2.8 % • Ice 2.15% • Liquid 0.65% • Groundwater 0.62% • Lakes 0.009% • Soil Moisture 0.005% • Streams and Rivers 0.001% • Atmosphere 0.0001%

  6. Why Not Use Sea Water? • Desalination now provides 1% of world drinking water • Distillation (Energy intensive) • Passive distillation (Slow, inefficient) • Reverse Osmosis (Filters delicate, prone to clogging and contamination) • Towing Antarctic Icebergs (Not done yet, but the numbers are promising)

  7. Surface Water, Bosnia

  8. Dams • Irrigation • Urban water supply • Hydroelectric power • Flood control • Recreation

  9. Impacts of Dams • Human dislocation • Habitat Destruction • Terrestrial • Aquatic • Disruption of natural cycles • Sediment Starvation • Increased Evaporation • Conflict • Division of Water • Denial as weapon

  10. Yangtze Gorge

  11. Three Gorges Dam, China

  12. Three Gorges Dam, China

  13. Three Gorges Dam, China

  14. Three Gorges Dam Locks

  15. Three Gorges Dam Locks

  16. Open Spillway

  17. Sierra Foothills, California

  18. O’Shaugnessy Dam, California

  19. O’Shaugnessy Dam, California

  20. O’Shaugnessy Dam, California

  21. Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, California

  22. Owens Valley, California

  23. Mono Lake, California

  24. Tufa Pinnacles, Mono Lake

  25. San Bernardino, California

  26. The Aral Sea

  27. Prehistoric Aral Sea?

  28. The Aral Sea • Once world’s 4th largest lake • Roughly area of Lake Michigan, but only 20% of its volume • Complex history of natural diversion and dessication • Pleistocene filling from north? • Fed only by Syr Darya until Holocene • Amu Darya captured ca. 10,000 years ago.

  29. Aral Sea 1957-2006

  30. Aral Sea 1957-2006

  31. Aral Sea 1957-2006

  32. Aral Sea 1957-2006

  33. Aral Sea 1957-2006

  34. Aral Sea 1957-2006

  35. Aral Sea, 2006

  36. Aral Sea, 2009

  37. The Aral Sea Disaster • Effects • < ¼ of original area • Destruction of fisheries • Respiratory illness from wind-blown salts • Solutions? • Ideally, stop irrigating • Dam off northern lakes and restore • Canal from Siberia?

  38. Some Places Have Too Much Water

  39. New Orleans

  40. Dangers of Cheap Work

  41. Missed It By That Much

  42. That Much

  43. Aquifers

  44. Impacts of Groundwater Use • Aquifer depletion • Lowering of water table • Drying of wells • Danger to springs and wetlands • Invasion of contaminants • Ground subsidence

  45. Green Bay Case Study Deep Aquifers of the Green Bay Area

  46. Green Bay Groundwater Pumping 1880-1960

  47. Green Bay Water Table 1880-1960

  48. Green Bay Piezometric Surface1957 1960

  49. Green Bay Piezometric Surface1957 2003