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Iran . Containment, Nation-building, and a little bit of why they hate us. Culture. Muslim but NOT Arabic Culturally Persian Speak Farsi 1906- Had first democratic revolution in Asia Led to a constitutional monarchy. Modernization. 1908- Oil discovered with the help of British

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Iran

Iran

Containment, Nation-building, and a little bit of why they hate us.


Culture
Culture

  • Muslim but NOT Arabic

    • Culturally Persian

    • Speak Farsi

  • 1906- Had first democratic revolution in Asia

    • Led to a constitutional monarchy


Modernization
Modernization

  • 1908- Oil discovered with the help of British

    • British had a deal in place where they get 85% of profits

  • 1925- Army officer Reza Khan seizes power and declares himself Shah (King)

    • most were nomadic herders or farmers

    • opens schools, builds roads/railroads, encouraged industry and gave more rights to women

    • His son continued modernization


Conflict with britain
Conflict with Britain

  • PM Mossedegh wants to nationalize the oil industry

    • Wants a better deal from British (15%-> 50%)

  • UK refuses; begins an embargo (ban) on Iran.

    • Won’t sell sugar, steel, etc

    • Oil Technicians won’t work with them

    • Navy blockades export cities

    • Nation goes bankrupt


Coup d etat
Coup d’etat

  • Pres. Truman refused, but Pres. Eisenhower agreed

  • CIA working with MI6.

    • Hired thugs to pose as Communists and start trouble

    • Hired 2nd group to protest against 1st group.

    • Bribed officials

    • Rigged elections in

      rural areas


Aftermath
Aftermath

  • Gen. Zahedi made Prime Minister

  • As payment, British monopoly on Iranian oil is ended

    • 5 U.S. companies move in

    • Economy does improve-Shah calls this a victory

    • U.S. agrees to fight Communist rebels

  • First time U.S. overthrows a democratic, civil government


Motives
Motives

  • Not Oil. U.S. had many sources

    • Did NOT want other places to start thinking about nationalizing oil, though.

    • Didn’t want Soviets to get the oil

  • Red Menace is everywhere

    • China is now communist

    • Fighting North Korea

    • ‘49 – USSR successfully tests atomic bomb

  • Britain is helping U.S. in Korea, had to help them in Iran


The long view
The Long View

  • Overthrows elected gov’t of Guatemala next year

  • Iranians don’t see U.S. as supporters of freedom – just as bad as British

    • Shah is “U.S. puppet”

    • Authoritarian and repressive

  • In ‘79 the “pro-western” Shah would be overthrown and replaced by “anti-western” Islamic Republic