World War II 1939-1945
How does WWI lead to WWII? • Failures of the Versailles Treaty • Increased Japanese Imperialism • Ineffective League of Nations
Moving Towards War • Breaking down neutrality • “Good Neighbor Policy” • Cash and Carry Act (1939) • Build up US defenses • Build up forces • Selective Training and Service Act • The Threat of the United States • Axis was determined to keep the U.S. out of the war
Election of 1940 • Roosevelt v. Wendell Willkie • Same platform – keep out of war • Voters chose who they the best • 55% of votes went to FDR
The Lend-Lease Plan, 1941 • Lend arms to countries “whose defense was vital to the United States” • Leant arms to Britain and the Soviet Union • The United States Army was given permission to shoot at German U-boats who wanted to attack the supply ships
The Atlantic Charter • Winston Churchill and FDR met to discuss war aims • Formed the basis of a “Declaration of the United Nations • Official orders to shoot U-boats on sight in response to Germany attacking a U.S. Naval Ship
Japan and the United States • Why does Japan attack the United States?
The Attack on Pearl Harbor • December 7, 1941 • FDR’s Speech to Congress
Text of Speech • Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. • The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with the government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. • Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleagues delivered to the Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack. • It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time, the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace. • The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. Very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu. • Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya. • Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong. • Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam. • Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands. • Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island. • This morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.
Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation. • As commander in chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense. • Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us. • No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory. • I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost, but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again. • Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger. • With confidence in our armed forces - with the unbounding determination of our people - we will gain the inevitable triumph - so help us God. • I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire.
Propaganda Posters • 4 Types: • Recruitment • Guilt • Duty • Sacrifice • Financing • Dehumanizing the Enemy
7 Future American Presidents Views of the World Were Formed by Their Service in World War II
Loony Toons and Walt Disney • Used their work to recruit Americans into the war effort
Your Day at the Movies • Newsreel on Allied Progress • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ncLuwSu3j_k&feature=related • Cartoons! • Collect your Scrap Metal! • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bnpdwn1mR6c • Buy a War Bond! • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KI8jKZ9HH3U&feature=related • Learn to hate the enemy! • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cSvs_mHJ3so • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JPuVFN7Vank&feature=related
On the Political Front • Office of Price Administration • National War Labor Board • War Production Board • Department of the Treasury • Revenue Act of 1942 • Smith Connally Anti-Strike Act (1943)
The General Public Soldiers Returning • Unemployment rate 1.2% • Pay rose 35% • Farmers can grow better crops • Women in the workforce • Mass migrations • Quick marriages • Rise in Juvenile Delinquency • Period of Readjustment • GI Bill of Rights • Given money to start businesses and buy homes Effects on the American Citizen
The Japanese Internment • Background • Aimed at Japanese living on the West Coast • Expectations
Korematsu v. The United States, 1944 • What is the case? • What is the outcome? Why? • What does this say about the agenda of the Supreme Court during the 1940s? • U.S. apologizes in the 1960s.