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Chapter 7. Five Basic Sentence Types. Sentence Slots. S. Subject Predicate MV int = Intransitive ( no object ) MV BE = BE as the main verb MV link = BE, appear, become, etc… NP 1 MV tr = Transitive ( requires an object ). predicate. Subj. NP. VP. Sentence Type I.

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Five Basic Sentence Types

sentence slots
Sentence Slots

S

  • Subject
  • Predicate
    • MVint =Intransitive (no object)
    • MVBE = BE as the main verb
    • MVlink = BE, appear, become, etc… NP1
    • MVtr = Transitive (requires an object)

predicate

Subj

NP

VP

what s the predicate pattern

Sentence Type I

What’s the predicate pattern?
  • The customer complained persistently
  • Carla must have enrolled rather early
  • A telephone is ringing
  • Jan snores loudly
  • Fish swim
  • Verbs (+ Nouns)
  • Verbs (+ Adj’s)
  • Verbs (+ Adv’s)
  • ADJs (+ Adv’s)
type i intransitive verb
Type I: Intransitive Verb
  • Sentence ends with:
    • Verbial

or

    • Adverbial
  • Tests
    • Main verb is not “BE”
    • Divide predicate into phrasesIf all phrases are VP or ADVP = Intransitive
    • Test for ADVP by substitution
common intransitive verbs
Disappear

Complain

Snore

Rise

Fall

Sob

Cry

Begin

Grow

Melt

See

Live

Return

Common Intransitive Verbs

Ask yourself if the action is done in some way, in some direction or to some degree.

type i np mv int adv
Type I: NP + MVint (+ADV)

Type I or not?

  • The bus stops here on Mondays
  • Becky stepped very carelessly into the street
  • It was Tuesday so the bus almost hit her
diagramming

Sentence Type I

Diagramming
  • (you) Stay downwind

(you) Stay__

downwind

treeing

Sentence Type I

Treeing
  • (you) Stay downwind

S

VP

NP

MVP

ADV

Stay

(you)

downwind

find a type i sentence

Find a Type I Sentence…

… in your G & C paper

NP + MVint (+ADV)

what s the predicate pattern11

Sentence Type II

What’s the predicate pattern?
  • Jesse is outside.
  • Her job interviews were yesterday.
  • The reception will be at noon.
  • Cheryl’s notebook must have been on the desk.
  • VIntrans. + ADV manner
  • VTrans. + ADJ subject complement
  • BE + ADJ subject complement
  • BE + ADV time/place
type ii be adv of time place
Type II: BE + ADV of Time/Place
  • Sentence includes:
    • Linking (BE) VerbAND
    • Adverbial Complement (required)
      • Complement = something that completes…
  • Tests
    • Is the Main Verb “BE”?
    • Is “BE” followed by ADVP of time or place?
type ii np mv be adv t p
Type II: NP+MVBE+Advt/p
  • Are these Type II?
    • I am here now
    • I am happy to be here
    • I must have been elsewhere yesterday
    • I like go to China during the summer
find the type ii construction

Sentence Type II

Find the Type II Construction…
  • Your car keys are under the sofa
  • You like to wear women’s shoes
diagramming15

Sentence Type II

Diagramming
  • Your car keys are under the sofa

keys are

car

Your

under

sofa

the

treeing16

Sentence Type II

Treeing

S

VP

NP

MVP

ADVP

PREP

DET

N

DET

ADJ

N

are

Your car keys

under the sofa

what s the pattern

Sentence Type III

What’s the Pattern?
  • Sheila is beautiful
  • Her parties are very lavish
  • She is becoming friendly
  • Her husband has seemed happier
  • MVtr + Direct object
  • MVint + ADV manner
  • MVlink + ADJ subj. complement
  • MVBE + Nominal subj. complement
type iii linking verb adj subj comp
Type III: LinkingVerb+AdjSubjComp
  • Sentences contain:
    • Linking VerbAND
    • Subject Complement (AKA Predicate Adjective)
  • Tests
    • Is the MVP followed by ADJP?
    • Is the MV “BE” or substitutable with “BE”?
      • e.g. appear, become, seem grow, feel, look, sound…
common linking verbs
Common Linking Verbs
  • BE
  • Seem
  • Become
  • Taste
  • Feel
  • Look

See p. 212 for more…

type iii np mv link adj subj comp
Type III: NP + MVlink + Adj Subj Comp
  • Are these Type III?
    • Fred seems to be angry
    • His cashmere sweater feels silky
    • Pat looked surprisingly happy after his loss
    • He looked as though he had been up all night
type iii constructions x2
Type III Constructions: (x2)

1 2 3 4

  • 1 & 2
  • 2 & 3
  • 3 & 4
  • 2 & 4
diagramming22

Sentence Type III

Diagramming
  • I’m busy

I ‘m \ busy

treeing23

Sentence Type III

Treeing
  • I’m busy

S

VP

NP

MVP

ADJP

Pron

‘m

busy

I

what s the pattern24
What’s the Pattern?
  • Jack and Jill are cousins
  • Their trip to the well was a failure
  • The hill is becoming a jungle
  • Jack and Jill remained friends after their tumble down the hill
  • MVtr + Direct object
  • MVlink + Nominal subj. complement
  • MVlink + ADJ subj. complement
  • MVBE + Nominal subj. complement
type iv linking verb nom subj comp
Type IV: LinkingVerb+Nom Subj Comp
  • Sentence contains:
    • Linking VerbAND
    • NP that complements the subject (NP1)
      • AKA  NP1+MVlink+NP1
  • Tests
    • Is the MVP followed by another NP?
      • Does this NP refer to the same entity as the Subj?
    • Is the MV “BE” or substitutable with “BE”?
      • Can “may be classified as” substitute for the MV?
type iv np m v link nom subj comp
Type IV: NP+MVlink+Nom Subj Comp
  • Are these sentences Type IV?
    • That paint is the right color
    • The train disappeared into a tunnel
    • Her carrot cake was a dreadful failure
type iv constructions x2
Type IV Constructions? (x2)

1 2 3 4

  • 1 & 2
  • 2 & 3
  • 3 & 4
  • 2 & 4
diagramming28
Diagramming
  • Mario is a very busy guy

Complements the subject

Mario is \ guy____

a

busy

very

treeing29
Treeing
  • Mario is a very busy guy

S

VP

NP1

MVP

NP1

art

Adv

Adj

N

is

a

very

busy

guy

Mario

what s the pattern30
What’s the Pattern?
  • Dave threw the ball to George
  • John saw Bill
  • Three minnows were nibbling her toes
  • Pecan pie enlivens any meal
  • The man had bought a cake for dinner
  • MVtr + Direct object
  • MVint + Nominal subj. complement
  • MVlink + ADJ subj. complement
  • MVBE + Nominal subj. complement
type v transitive verb d o
Type V: Transitive Verb + D.O.
  • Sentence is constructed like this:
    • NP1 + MVtr + NP2
    • Subject = Actor
    • Object = Item Acted upon (Receiver of Action)
  • Tests for Direct Object:
    • Who?
    • What?
    • ≠ NP1
transitive vs linking verbs
Transitive vs. Linking Verbs
  • Transitive verbs:
    • show “action”
    • answer the question 'what.'
diagramming34
Diagramming
  • I hate happy hour

Direct Object

I hate | hour

happy

treeing35
Treeing

S

VP

NP1

MVP

NP2

N

ADJ

hate

happy hour

I

in your g c paper
In your G & C paper…
  • Find as many types as you can…
    • Type I: NP + MVint (+ADV)
    • Type II: NP + MVBE + Advt/p
    • Type III:NP + MVlink + Adj Subj Comp
    • Type IV: NP+MVlink+Nom Subj Comp
    • Type V: NP1 + MVtr + NP2
analyzing sentences

Analyzing Sentences…

…why we should care

error
Error?

1. Find the Error

2. Explain it

3. Fix it

  • What sentence type this?
  • How does that relate to the error?
    • The baby’s mother is a king.
sentence type
Sentence Type

1. Find the Error

2. Explain it

3. Fix it

  • She slept a baby in the crib.
  • Hint:
    • MVint doesn’t take an object
sentence type41
Sentence Type

1. Find the Error

2. Explain it

3. Fix it

  • At night, the baby’s nurses always speak very quiet.
  • Hints:
    • MVint
    • ADV complement
sentence type42
Sentence Type

1. Find the Error

2. Explain it

3. Fix it

  • [Wicked is prototypically an adjective] Knowing that it is an adjective automatically informs that it is describing something.
  • Hints:
    • Type V (Transitive Verb)
    • MVtr requires an object
comma usage
Comma Usage
  • Never put a single comma between the Subject and Predicate or between the Verb and its complements
  • Use two commas to set off anything that interrupts the Subject and predicate or the Verb and its complements
you tell me
You Tell Me…

1. Find the Error

2. Explain it

3. Fix it

  • All contact center technicians work together in a single room, with most of the workspaces around the perimeter.
  • Hint:
    • To comma or not to comma…
  • Confession:
    • This is an error from one of mypapers
diagramming review
NPs & VPs on flat lines

Major break between Subject & Predicate

Modifiers on slanted lines

Subject Complement go on main line after “\”

Direct Objects go on main line after “|”

Diagramming Review

NP1

VP

Subj Comp.

\ ____

Adj

Adv

Adj/Adv

NP1

VP

NP2

|

Adj

Adv

Prep

Noun

treeing review
Start by writing sentence at the bottom

Work up word by word, joining phrases

Separate Subject & Predicate with NP // VP

S

NP VP

Art N V Adv

The students are upstairs

Treeing Review

S

NP VP

Art N V Adj

The students are smart

quiz tomorrow

Quiz Tomorrow

Review Slides, text & exercises…