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Welcome. Quality of service. Unit 9 Chapter 4 and 6. Van der AA and Elfring Mieke de Droog, M.A. 3 May 2011. Why is it important to have insight in the quality of (public) service?

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Quality of service. Unit 9

Chapter 4 and 6. Van der AA and Elfring

Mieke de Droog, M.A. 3 May 2011


Why is it important to have insight in the quality of (public) service?

Public money must be spent as good as possible (effective, efficient, qualitative and according to the needs of the society)

Good quality of service leads to clients satisfaction

Insight in the (lack of) quality of service can contribute to improvement of that quality


What are reasons why management of quality in a service organization requests a special focus?

In the eyes of the customer, the quality is not only determined by the final product but also by the process

A service can vary from place to place and from employee to employee

Clients vary in the demands they have and the role they can and want to perform in service.

Van de AA & Elfring2003, 50

the client determines the quality

What is the relation of client expectations and (public)service?

  • Quality should be seen as the proportion between what clients (may) expect and what they ultimately experience

The client determines the quality

  • This means that quality begins with the question: What do we know about the expectations and experiences of our clients?

Van de AA & Elfring2003, 50-51

importance of the 5 main dimensions of quality

Zeithaml, Parasuraman,& Berry, 1990

Importance of the 5 main dimensions of quality


Each model has its limitations. It is important to take that into account. The SERVQUAL model focuses on quality dimensions that are very common in nature. It is therefore important to tune in the research to the type of service.

Van de AA & Elfring (2003), Chapter 4


Scann van blz 10

Table 1.1. The diversity of services Gastelaars, 2009: 10


Appendix 1, table 1, related to assignment E2 of the course (Gastelaars (2009) Chapter 4. The primary process of service delivery: the routing of the clients



What does determine

the expectations of the client?


Tolerance zone

Zeithaml & Bitner, 2002, van derAa & Elfring 54


Opzoeken in hfd 4

Verwijzen naar student expectations


Table 4.3. Problem areas (gaps) and root causes,

according to the SERVQUAL model

Zeithaml & Bitner, 2002, van derAa & Elfring 56


Table 4.3. Problem areas (gaps) in client centered services

Zeithaml & Bitner, 2002, van derAa & Elfring 57


What are some methods to gain insight into the needs and experiences of customers?

1.The survey2. Mystery shopper3. Customers and discount cards4. A review form immediately after completion of the service


External communication –

management of expectations

It is important to promise the client neither too little nor too much

It is important to inform the client about what is going on, what is the cause of the problems and what the organization is doing to solve them.

van derAa & Elfring 68


Conclusions Chapter 4

Quality is an integral management issue.

Quality is not only determined by the final result, but also by the process.

Client expectations and client experiences are very important factors in quality.

The main reasons for a lack of quality in service are: lack of knowledge about the customer, lack of clear goals, non-compliance with guidelines and specifications and too high expectations by the external communication

van derAa & Elfring 69


Chapter 6. The client as co-producer (1)

The participation of the client is always required.

The client is usually present during the service.

Front-office: visible for the client / back office: invisible for the client.

The extent to which the customer participates in the service varies (see also Gastelaars).

van derAa & Elfring 88-89


Chapter 6. The client as co-producer (2)

5. Clients influence the efficiency and quality of service.

6. High contact services (Chase, 1981)

7. From the perspective of operations management the production process can be more efficient if the uncertainty by the presence of customers decreases.

8. Customer needs/satisfaction vs efficiency

9. Interface design

10. Expectation client (role professional/own role)

11. Role technology is growing

van derAa & Elfring 89-91


Van derAa & Elfring distinguish 6 functions of clients in the service process:

contract giver

co-producer : active role; partial employee (Schneider & Bowen, 1995)


quality controller


designer of the culture of the organization

van derAa & Elfring 92-95


The behavior of clients is based on three considerations (Schneider & Bowen, 1995):

1. clarity of roles2. competencies of the customer3. motivation of the client

van derAa & Elfring 96


Instruments derived from the personnel management to promote the participation of the clients:

1. Recruitment

2. Information and communication

3. Training and facilitation

4. Motivation

van derAa & Elfring 97-100


Conclusions Chapter 6  (1)

1. The client should also be 'managed ‘. 2. The presence of the client may complicate the planning.3. Limiting the role of the customer vs the client as a source of renewal and productivity.4 .Methods to increase the productivity: improve staff quality, efficient investment in capital goods, ICT and making changes in the interaction between providers and clients.

van derAa & Elfring 101


Conclusions Chapter 6  (2)

5. The success of the customer as co-producer is also dependent on the extent to which the public accepts new roles.6. It is therefore important to strategically choose the different roles that clients can play.7. Instruments from the marketing and human resources could be essential

van derAa & Elfring 101



C. Quality of service

Answer the following questions: What are the similarities and differences in the chapters of Van derAa & Elfring and the chapters of SCP? What dimensions of quality of Van derAa & Elfring play a role in a specific sector? How is the quality of service in this specific sector presented in the report of SCP?

Send this assignment via email to miekearuba@hotmail.com and jessie.maria@ua.aw

before 15 May 11.00 pm



Reminder I

D3. Make a summary of Chapter 5. Gastelaars (2010), including a word count, in max. 500 words and email this summary to vanessapietersz@gmail.com, miekearuba@hotmail.com and jessie.maria@ua.aw

  • before 13 May 2011 4.00pm

A sufficient grade for these three Reading Assignments (D1, D2, D3) is mandatory in order to obtain your final grade for this module.


Group written assignment (with 3 students)

  • E. Characteristics of an organization

E1. Make the assignment about the characteristics of the

research organization on the basis of characteristics of

Gastelaars (See table 1.1. in chapter 1, on p. 10 of the book).

E2. Reconstruct the design of the various stages of the

primary process, and try to make sense of the clients’

experiences as well.

What are the main changes, which currently play in this


Send these assignment via email to miekearuba@hotmail.com

and jessie.maria@ua.aw

  • before 14 May 11.00 pm


Reminder II



Thank you for your attention and