CHAPTER 12The Family Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Section 2: The American Family
Family Systems Family- a group of 2 people or more (one of whom is a householder) related by: • Marriage • Birth • Adoption • and who live together Family members share a sense of social bonding, responsibility for each other’s well-being, the mutual acceptance of rights and obligation.
Nuclear Family- consists of one or both parents and their children. This is the most recognizable of Americans. Family of Orientation- the nuclear family into which the person is born or adopted. Family of Procreation- when a person marries a new nuclear family is formed consisting of the individual, his or her spouse and their children. Extended Family- family form that consists of three or more generations sharing the same residence. Kinship- network of people who are related by marriage, birth or adoption.
Sandwich Generation- a generation of people who are caring for their aging parents while supporting their own children
The exact nature of the family varies from society to society and even within societies. Family organization is determined by how a society or group answers 4 questions. • How many marriage partners may a person have? • Who will live with whom? • How will family membership be determined? • Who will make the decisions in the family? • Marriage- set of norms that specify the ways in which family structure should be organized.
Marriage Partners Monogamy- the marriage of one man to one women. Polygamy- marriage with multiple partners. Polygyny- most common form of polygamy. A man is permitted to marry more than one woman at a time Polyandry- a women is permitted to marry more than one man at a time.
Residential Patterns Patrilocality- when a newly married couple is expected to live with or near the husband’s parents. Matrilocality- when a newly married couple are expected to live near or with the wife’s parents. Neolocality- when a newly married couple is free to set up their residence apart from both sets of parents.
Descent Patterns Patrilineal Descent- tracing kinship through the father’s family. Property is passed from father to son. Matrilineal Descent- tracing kinship through the mother’s family. Property is passed from mother to daughter. It’s much less common. Bilateral Descent- kinship is traced through both parents. Property can be inherited from either side of the family.
Authority Patterns Patriarchy- the father holds most of the authority. Matriarchy- the mother holds most of the authority. Egalitarian- both the mother and father share the authority.
Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Basic Needs Provided by the Family • Regulation of sexual activity – enforce incest taboo-forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives. • Reproduction – societies establish norms governing childbearing and child rearing.
Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Basic Needs Provided by the Family • Socialization – children must be taught the ways of the society into which they were born. • Economic and Emotional Security – family acts as the basic economic unit in society and in most cases labor is divided on the basis of gender.
Section 2: The American Family Beginnings of the American Family and Disruptions • Marriage begins with courtship and marriage between either homogamous or heterogamous couples. • Disruptions include family violence, divorce, empty nest, return of adult children and death of a spouse.
Arranged Marriages • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=henmRGf_67k India • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AqGA0xjOms4 Tanzania • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VnwxryLo3Nc Pakistani Muslim
Section 2: The American Family Sociologists Examine Trends in American Family Life • Delayed Marriages – current trend is to marry later in life and being single has become an acceptable alternative to being married. • Delayed Childbearing – women are delaying childbirth to complete their education and establish a career. • Childlessness – couples are making the conscious choice to remain voluntarily childless.
Section 2: The American Family Sociologists Examine Trends in American Family Life ) • Dual-Earner Marriages – increase in the number of dual-earner marriages due to the increased number of women entering the workforce. • One-Parent Families– come about in various ways such as divorce, death of a spouse, births to unwed mothers or adoption by unmarried individuals. • Remarriage – the majority of people who get divorced- about 75 percentget remarried.