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Active and Passive Voice

Active and Passive Voice

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Active and Passive Voice

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  1. Active and Passive Voice Latin II Grammar Review: Lesson 5a

  2. Characteristics of Verbs • Verbs have five basic characteristics • Person • Number • Tense • Voice • Mood

  3. Voice • Voice indicates whether the subject is doing or is receiving the action of the verb • Active voice reflects a subject that is doing the action • Passive voice reflects a subject that is receiving the action

  4. Active Voice Examples: • The dog is biting the man. • Subject is dog • The dog is doing “the biting” • The player kicked the ball. • Subject is player • The player is doing “the kicking”

  5. Passive Voice Examples: • The man is bitten by the dog. • Subject is man • The man is receiving “the biting” • The ball is kicked by the player. • Subject is ball • The ball is receiving “the kicking”

  6. Formula for the Present System • Active and Passive voices use the same basic formula for the present system • Present Stem + Tense Sign + Pers. Ending • Present Stem formed by removing the “-re” or “-ere” from the 2nd P.P.

  7. Active Personal Endings Singular • -o/m (I) • -s (you) • -t (he, she, it) Plural • -mus (we) • -tis (y’all) • -nt (they)

  8. Passive Personal Endings Singular • -r (I) • -ris (you) • -tur (he, she, it) Plural • -mur (we) • -mini (y’all) • -ntur (they)

  9. Translating the Passive Voice • Passive Voice translations must contain two elements: • Form of the verb “to be” as an English helping verb • The “past” tense form of the English verb

  10. Translating the Passive Voice Active Passive Present: I am fighting I amfought Imperfect: I was loving I was loved Future: I will save I will be saved Perfect: I have created I have been created Pluperfect: I had carried I had been carried Future Perfect: I will have found I will have beenfound

  11. Present Passive Tense • amo, amāre • Stem = amā • Pres Stem + P.E. amoramāmur amārisamāmini amāturamāntur English Translation • English Helping Verbs: “am, is, are” + -ed form • I amloved • you areloved • he isloved • we areloved • y’all areloved • they areloved

  12. Imperfect Passive Tense • habeo, habēre • Stem = habē • Pres Stem + ba + P.E. habēbarhabēbamur habēbarishabēbamini habēbaturhabēbantur English Translation • English Helping Verbs: “was/were” + -ed form • I was held • you were held • she was held • we were held • y’all were held • they were held

  13. Future Passive Tense • porto, portāre • Stem = portā • Pres. Stem + bo/bi/bu + P.E. portāborportābimur portāberisportābimini portābiturportābuntur English Translation • English Helping Verbs: “shall/will” + -ed form • I shall be carried • you will be carried • it will be carried • we shall be carried • y’all will be carried • they will be carried

  14. Future Passive Tense • duco, ducere • Stem = duc • Pres Stem + a/e + P.E. ducarducemur ducerisducemini duceturducentur English Translation • English Helping Verbs: “shall/will” + -ed form • I shall be led • you will be led • he will be led • we shall be led • y’all will be led • they will be led

  15. Review of Terms • 1st P.P: 1st person singular, present tense • 2nd P.P. present infinitive; present stem • 3rd P.P. 1st person singular, perfect tense; perfect active stem • 4th P.P. perfect passive participle

  16. Perfect Passive System Formulae Perfect Passive verbs are two word forms Formulae: • Present Perfect Passive: 4th P.P. and sum • Pluperfect Passive: 4th P.P. and eram • Future Perfect Passive: 4th P.P. and ero

  17. amo, amāre, amavi, amatus – a, um 4th P.P. and sum amatus sum amatisumus amatusesamatiestis amatusestamatisunt English Translation English Helping Verbs: “has/have been” + -ed I have beenloved you have beenloved he has beenloved we have beenloved y’all have beenloved they have beenloved Perfect Passive Tense

  18. duco, ducere, duxi, ductus – a, um 4th P.P. and eram ductaeramductaeeramus ducta eras ductaeeratis ductaeratductaeerant English Translation English Helping Verbs: “had been” + -ed I had beenled you had beenled she had beenled we had beenled y’all had beenled they had beenled Pluperfect Passive Tense

  19. facio, facere, feci, factus – a, um 4th P.P. and ero factum erofactaerimus factum erisfactaeritis factum eritfactaerunt English Translation English Helping Verbs: “will have been” + -ed I will have beendone you will have beendone it will have beendone we will have beendone y’all will have beendone they will have beendone Future Perfect Passive Tense