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WWI - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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WWI . Graphic Organizer Answers. Causes: Nationalism/Imperialism/Militarism. Nationalism – strong national pride in one’s nation, not ethnic identities France wanted Alsace-Lorraine back Minority cultures threatened Social Darwinism Destabilized empires (Austria-Hungary – Balkans)

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WWI

Graphic Organizer Answers

causes nationalism imperialism militarism
Causes: Nationalism/Imperialism/Militarism
  • Nationalism – strong national pride in one’s nation, not ethnic identities
    • France wanted Alsace-Lorraine back
    • Minority cultures threatened
    • Social Darwinism
    • Destabilized empires (Austria-Hungary – Balkans)
  • Imperialism – Desire for colonies
    • Competition for empires (Africa, Asia)
  • Militarism – Buildup of the military
    • Stockpiling weapons, more and better weapons; glorification of the military
    • Conscription
    • Germany builds a strong army and navy
alliances and assassination
Alliances and Assassination
  • Triple Alliance – Aust.-Hung, Germany, Italy
  • Triple Entente – GB, France, Russia
  • Goal: protection and military aid
  • June 28, 1914 – Sarajevo (Bosnia)
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated
    • GavrilloPrincip
    • Black Hand – Serbian Nationalists
  • Chain reaction as nations honor alliances
  • Germany advances through neutral Belgium (Schlieffen Plan)
technology trench warfare western front
Technology, Trench Warfare, Western Front
  • Germans stopped at the Marne
  • Ineffective offensives coupled with powerful defenses
    • Stalemate – 600 miles of trenches – Western Front
  • Devastating weapons (artillery, machine guns, poison gas, tanks)
  • Trenches – mud, filth, rats, trench foot, exposure
  • War of attrition – thousands died
  • Verdun (700,000), Somme (60,000 in one day)
american position neutrality to war
American Position: Neutrality to War
  • Neutrality – Wilson’s official policy (“He kept us out of war”)
  • Divided loyalties
    • Irish/German – favored Central Powers
    • Russians – Jews fled to US from pogroms
    • Most Americans favored Allies
      • British heritage
      • French revolutionary spirit; aid in American Revolution
  • Isolationists – stay out
  • Interventionists – get in
  • Internationalists – play a roll but keep peace
american position neutrality to war1
American Position – Neutrality to War
  • Preparedness policy – getting ready for war
  • Many opposed
  • Involvement:
    • Germany unrestricted submarine warfare
    • Lusitania
    • Sussex
    • Zimmerman note
    • April, 1917 – Congress declares war
home front economy public opinion dissension society
Home Front: Economy, Public Opinion, Dissension, Society
  • Economy – Government control
    • WIB – Bernard Baruch – ran industry
    • Food Administration – Herbert Hoover (ramped up agriculture, regulated prices, conservation and rationing
      • Mon. – Wheat, Tues – Meat, Wed. – Pork
  • Public Opinion
    • CPI – George Creel, propaganda
  • Dissension – Opposition to the war
    • Germans/Irish, Pacifists, Govt. trespassing on individual freedoms, opposition to the draft, conscientious objectors, women’s peace movements (Jeanette Rankin)
home front
Home Front
  • Government crackdown
    • Espionage Act, Sedition Act
    • Schenk v. US
    • Debs imprisoned several times (Socialist)
  • Society
    • Prejudice at home against Germans (liberty measles, liberty steaks, liberty pups)
    • Women jobs, 19th amendment
    • Great Migration
americas role battles leaders treaty
Americas role, Battles, Leaders, Treaty
  • America turns the tide of the war
    • Thousands enlist, fresh troops,
    • Doughboys “Over There”
    • Convoy system
  • Battles
    • 2nd Marne, Chatteau Thierry, Belleau Wood, Meuse Argonne
      • Alvin York – American hero
      • Af-Am regiment earns highest honor in France
america cont
America cont.
  • Leader – General John J. Pershing (“Blackjack), leads US forces
  • Treaty
    • Armistice – 11/11/18 (Veterans’ Day)
    • Wilson’s Fourteen Points
      • Freedom of the seas, self-determination of nations, reduction of military, no alliances
      • 14th League of Nations – Senate fails to ratify treaty, US does not join the League
      • Treaty – Germany: war guilt, reparations, demilitarize, humiliated and crushed; new map of Europe drawn
impact of war economy communism normalcy new order
Impact of War: Economy, Communism, “Normalcy,” New Order
  • Economy
    • Post war recession, women and blacks lose jobs, labor unrest, inflation, flu pandemic
  • Communism
    • Red Scare as Russia turns communist; Palmer raids, Sacco and Vanzetti trial
  • Normalcy
    • Harding embraces “normalcy;” Republicans throughout 20’s; return to isolation
  • New Order
    • What will America’s role be? Old order of empires destroyed, millions dead, what next???