Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition SCHIFFMAN & KANUK. Chapter 7. Consumer Learning. The Importance of Consumer Learning to New Product Success. Why did these products fail? Listerine Toothpaste Ben-Gay Aspirin Why did Pocket Packs succeed?. Importance of Learning.
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Consumer Behavior,Eighth EditionSCHIFFMAN & KANUK
Behavioral Theories: Theories based on the basis that learning takes place as the result of observable responses to external stimuli. Also known as stimulus response theory.
Cognitive Theories: A theory of learning based on mental information processing, often in response to problem solving.Learning Theories
A process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge
that they apply to
future related behavior.
Intentional: learning acquired as a result of a careful search for information
Incidental: learning acquired by accident or without much effortLearning Processes
A positive or negative outcome that influences the likelihood that a specific behavior will be repeated in the future in response to a particular cue or stimulus.
A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone.
A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.
9 o’clock news
AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS
9 o’clock news
Figure 7.3 Cosmetic Variations in Ads
according to others marketing scholars
The inability to perceive differences between slightly dissimilar stimuli.
The ability to select a specific stimulus from among similar stimuli because of perceived differences.
Legs too tight
Tight in seat
Stimulus Situation (Need good-looking jeans)
Baggy in seat
Figure 7.10 A Model of Instrumental Conditioning
Positive Reinforcement: Positive outcomes that strengthen the likelihood of a specific response
Example: Ad showing beautiful hair as a reinforcement to buy shampoo
Negative Reinforcement: Unpleasant or negative outcomes that serve to encourage a specific behavior
Example: Ad showing wrinkled (smooth) skin as reinforcement to buy skin creamReinforcement
A process by which individuals observe the behavior of others, and consequences of such behavior. Also known as modeling or vicarious (observational)
Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving, which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment.
A cognitive theory of human learning patterned after computer information processing that focuses on how information is stored in human memory and how it is retrieved.
Working Memory (Short-term Store)
Innovation Adoption Model
Innovation Decision Process
A theory of consumer learning which postulates that consumers engage in a range of information processing activity from extensive to limited problem solving, depending on the relevance of the purchase.
A theory that proposesthat highly involved consumers are best reached through ads that focus on the specific attributes of the product (the central route) while uninvolved consumers can be attracted through peripheral advertising cues such as the model or the setting (the peripheral route).
A theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective.
Message Arguments Influence Attitudes
Peripheral Cues Influence Attitudes
Brand Loyalty As A Function of
Relative Attitude and Patronage Behavior