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World War II

World War II

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World War II

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  1. World War II Chapter 14

  2. Fascism • -During 1930’s, many countries fall under a Totalitarian govt. • -Govt. controls every aspect of life • -Italy follows a system called Fascism • -Nation is more important than people • -Same as Communism except people can own their own businesses • -No individual rights or freedoms • -Fascism started by Benito Mussolini • -IL Duce [The Leader] • -Becomes Prime Minister in 1922 • -His private army was called “ The Blackshirts” • -Uses power to rebuild Italy • -Also gains more land by conquering Ethiopia

  3. Mussolini

  4. Germany • -People of Germany were unhappy with the WWI treaty • -Gives rise to many radical movements • -One major one gains power over all the rest • -Called National Socialist German Workers Party • -Nazi Party • -Led by Adolf Hitler • -Nov. 1923, Hitler & party try to overthrow govt. • -Hitler is caught and sent to jail for 5 years • -Only serves 9 months • -In prison, he writes his autobiography • -Called Mein Kampf • -My Struggle • -Outlines Nazi philosophy & his plans to fix Germany

  5. Hitler

  6. Mein Kampf

  7. Hitler Gains Power • -During 1920’s and 1930’s Germany in major Depression • -Mostly from WWI Reparations • -Payment by the losers to winners in a war • -Hitler promised to fix Germany • -Gained a huge following from the desperate Germans • -By 1933, Nazi party largest in Reichstag • -Law making body • -Reichstag appoints Hitler as Chancellor • -President • -Gives himself the title of Der Fuhrer • -The Leader

  8. War on the Horizon • -Hitler wanted to return Germany to a world power • -March 9, 1936, he invades Rhineland • Region in W. Germany • -Border of France & Belgium • -Breaks the Treaty of Versailles • -No resistance from Britain or France • -Hitler creates an Alliance with Italy • -Alliance is called Axis Powers • Germany, Italy, & Japan • -B/c of success in Rhineland, Hitler invades Austria in March 1938 • -Britain & France protest but do nothing militarily • -Both afraid of another world war • -Several months later, Hitler invades Sudetenland • Region of Czechoslovakia

  9. Pink is RhinelandYellow is Sudetenland

  10. Appeasement and Alliances • -To prevent a war, Britain, France, Italy, & Germany meet • -Agree in Sept. 1938 to an Appeasement • -Giving in to prevent war • -Britain and France agree to let Hitler keep all new land • -Hitler agrees not to take over any more land • -Hitler breaks agreement 6 months later • -Hitler never intends to keep his agreement • -Britain & France know this and make a secret agreement with Poland • -If Germany invaded Poland, Britain & France would come to their aid • -March 31, 1939 Hitler breaks appeasement & conquers Czechoslovakia

  11. War Begins • -To protect himself and prevent a 2 front war, Hitler signs Nazi-Soviet Pact • Treaty btw. Germany and USSR • Germany will not attack USSR • USSR gets Baltic States • Estonia • Latvia • Lithuania • -Hitler invades Poland on Sept. 1, 1939 • -Britain & France declare war on Germany on Sept. 3, 1939 • -Begins WWII [Sept. 3, 1939]

  12. Baltic States

  13. War in Europe • -Germany uses new form of warfare in attack of Poland • -Called Blitzkrieg • -Lightning warfare • -Quick military strikes • -Tactic helped Germany overrun Poland in 1 month • -With Hitler focusing on Poland, France built up its military on the Maginot Line • -System of defenses along the border of Germany & France • -Slows down war • -U.S. calls it “The Phony War” • -Europe calls it ”Sitzkrieg” • -Phony war ends on April 9, 1940 • -Germany invades Norway & Denmark • -May 10, 1940, Hitler uses Blitzkrieg on Belgium • -Germany takes control of all 3 areas

  14. Maginot Line

  15. Maginot Line Back Side

  16. Capture of France • -Germany crushes Maginot Line and pushes French troops to English Channel • -British rescue 340,000 French soldiers at Dunkirk • -Germany bombs France with Luftwaffe • German Airforce • -June 14, 1940 German troops enter Paris • -France surrenders on June 17, 1940

  17. Luftwaffe

  18. Luftwaffe

  19. Battle of Britain • -After France, Hitler wanted to take Britain • -Britain new leader was Winston Churchill • -Replaces Neville Chamberlain • -Hitler uses Luftwaffe to bomb Britain • -1000 planes/day dropped bombs on Britain • -Britain’s Airforce [RAF] took out many Luftwaffe • -The bombing of London was called The Blitz • -Dec. 1940 bombs set 1500 fires in London • -Forced many to bomb shelters • -Others were forced to live in subway tunnels • -By the end of 1941, 20,000 dead & 73,000 injured

  20. Winston Churchill

  21. Aiding the Allies • -Helped Allies with Neutrality Acts of 1939 • -Allies can buy goods from U.S. • -Next passed Lend-Lease Act • -U.S. could aid any nation that was vital to U.S. security • -US would lend/lease military goods to the Allies

  22. Japan & The U.S. • -Japan is poor & needs raw materials • -Conquered new land [Manchuria, Dutch East Indies] • -Signs alliance with Axis Powers in 1940 • -Also signs neutrality pact with USSR • -U.S. nervous about Japan • -FDR puts Pacific Naval Fleet in Pearl Harbor, HI • -FDR could not go to war b/c Americans wanted Isolationism

  23. Pearl Harbor • -Japan tries to conquer Indochina [Vietnam] • -U.S. cuts all trade with Japan [Mainly oil] • -Japan’s Prime Minister, General Hideki Tojo, wanted to go to war with U.S. • -U.S. tells Japan to give up all gained land and U.S. will re-open trade • -Japan refuses • -7:00AM on Dec. 7, 1941, 180 Japanese planes bomb Pearl Harbor • -2,400 Americans killed • -300 planes and 18 ships destroyed • -U.S. declares war on Japan on Dec. 8, 1941 • -Germany & Italy declare war on U.S. on Dec. 11 • -Memorial built in Pearl Harbor around the sunken ship U.S.S. Arizona • -Many feel FDR knew of attack and used it as a way to get America into WWII • -No concrete facts to support this claim

  24. Pearl Harbor

  25. Pearl Harbor Memorial Museum

  26. -August 1941, the U.S. and Britain sign Atlantic Charter • Alliance btw. U.S. & Britain • -After Pearl Harbor, U.S. begins wartime draft • -Thousands volunteer • -200,000 in U.S. military before Pearl Harbor • -16 million after • -U.S. troops call themselves G.I.’s • Government Issue stamped on all of their gear

  27. Minorities in WWII • -Many ethnic groups fought for U.S. in WWII • Mexican Americans • -Fought in Philippines • -Fought at D-Day • Japanese Americans • -Most were not allowed in military until 1943 • -Nisei were allowed in 1943 • -Citizens born in U.S. of Japanese parents • Women • -350,000 women volunteer • -Pilots, Coast Guard, Mechanics, etc. • -Largest group called Womens’ Army Corps

  28. Native Americans • -Navajo created a code unbreakable by Japanese • -“Navajo Code Talkers” • African Americans • -1 million drafted/volunteered • -Segregated into all black units • -B/c of huge causalities, units desegregated in 1944 • -Group of all black pilots also fought in WWII • -Called Tuskegee Airmen

  29. Navajo Code Talkers

  30. Tuskegee Airmen Tuskegee Airmen

  31. Tuskegee Airmen

  32. Operation Torch • -August 1940 British troops are fighting in Africa • -British troops led by Bernard Montgomery • -German troops led by Erwin Rommel [Desert Fox] • -May 1943, U.S. & British troops take control of Africa

  33. Invasion of Italy • -July 1943 U.S. troops under George S. Patton attack Italy • -In 38 days Mussolini is overthrown & killed by Italian people • -Italian govt. surrenders in Sept. 1943 • -Germans in Italy refuse to give up • -Germans lose key battle in Italy • -Battle of Anzio • -Italy formally surrenders in April 1945

  34. Mussolini’s Death

  35. Operation Barbarossa • -June 1941 Germany invades USSR • -Push Soviet Army to city of Stalingrad • -Battle of Stalingrad becomes USSR’s bloodiest • -Sept. 1942-Feb.1943 • -300,000 killed • -USSR wins & turns tide in Eastern Front

  36. D-Day • -U.S. & Britain agree in 1943 to attack Germany in France • -1st step was carpet-bombing • Large # of bombs dropped over area • -3000 planes/day • -U.S. used deception to fool Germany where invasion would occur • -Used Fake ships, rubber planes, misinformation, spies

  37. D-Day Decoys

  38. Enigma Machine • -Britain steals Germany’s code machine • -Called Enigma Machine • Allows Allies to know Germany’s plans • Also tells U.S. how much Hitler knows about invasion

  39. Enigma Machine

  40. D-Day Begins • -Invasion site was Normandy, France • -Nicknamed D-Day & Operation Overlord • -Set for June 5, 1944 • -Hitler believed invasion would be later and at city called Calais • -Bad weather on June 5th prevents invasion • -Moved to June 6, 1944 • -Leader of Allied troops at Normandy was General Dwight D. Eisenhower • -Invasion began at dawn • -1000 planes bomb coast of Normandy • -23,000 paratroopers drop before dawn behind enemy lines and try to work back to beach [2 fronts] • -Also used men on gliders • -150,000 ground troops prepare to land on boats

  41. D-Day Beaches • -Troops hit 5 beaches: • 1. Gold 4. Sword • 2. Utah 5. Juno • 3. Omaha • -Fierce resistance from Germans • -Hitler believes invasion is diversion • -Believes real invasion will come at Calais • -Does not send in reinforcements • -By nightfall, all 5 beaches were under Allied control • -Over 5,000 Allied troops killed • -Invasion gives Allies a base in mainland Europe • -By July, 2 million Allied troops in Europe • -Begin to push Germans out of France • -Puts Germans on defense on both fronts

  42. D-Day Beaches