What is a bureaucracy
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What is a Bureaucracy?. A method for organizing large groups. Loyola’s Bureaucracy. Characteristics of a Bureaucracy. Internal Division of Labor specialized by function. Employees are recruited and promoted based on expertise (usually). Hierarchy Standard Operating Procedures.

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What is a bureaucracy
What is a Bureaucracy?

  • A method for organizing large groups

Characteristics of a bureaucracy
Characteristics of a Bureaucracy

  • Internal Division of Labor specialized by function.

  • Employees are recruited and promoted based on expertise (usually).

  • Hierarchy

  • Standard Operating Procedures.

  • Effective, Efficient execution of tasks to reach goals.

Structure the cabinet
Structure…The Cabinet

15 departments

Each established by Congress for a specific task

Headed by a Secretary

Appointed by the President

Approved by the Senate

Each Dept is sub-divided

Functions are greatly impacted by the President

Cabinet departments

  • Secretary of State

  • Secretary of the Treasury

  • Secretary of Defense

  • Attorney General

  • Secretary of the Interior

  • Secretary of Agriculture

  • Secretary of Commerce

  • Secretary of Labor

  • Secretary of Health and Human Services

  • Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

  • Secretary of Transportation

  • Secretary of Energy

  • Secretary of Education

  • Secretary of Veterans Affairs

  • Secretary of Homeland Security

  • Created by:

    • Congress

  • Secretaries Approved by:

    • Senate

What the bureaucracy does
What the Bureaucracy Does

  • Congress and Pres.

  • Pass a Law

  • Bureaucracy

  • Implement/Enforce


Department of the interior
Department of the Interior


  • Bureau of Indian Affairs

  • National Parks Service

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

  • Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Enforcement

Independent agencies regulatory agencies government corporations

  • Report Directly to the President

  • Narrower area of Responsibility than Cabinet Departments.

  • What is the difference between these three?

Regulatory agencies

  • Created by Congress for a particular area of focus.

  • Regulate particular activity or interest

  • Free of political pressure

    • Securities and Exchange Commission

    • Federal Elections Commission


  • Like a cabinet dept. but have a more specific focus

  • Practical and symbolic reasons

  • Less indebted to President

  • NASA

  • CIA

  • EPA


  • http://www.learner.org/courses/democracyinamerica/dia_8/dia_8_video.html

    • 9:15 minute mark

  • Government corporations

    • Charge for services.

    • Also receive govt. funds.

      • Post Office

      • Amtrak

      • Why do these exist?

    Growth of the bureaucracy
    Growth of the Bureaucracy CORPORATIONS

    • 1st Congress: 1789

      • Created State, War, Treasury, Justice Departments.

    • 1861-1900:

      • Civil War

      • Industrial Revolution

        • Department of Agriculture

        • Dept. of Labor

        • Dept. of Commerce

    • Depression and WWII

      • Change in public attitude (role of Govt)

        • Social Programs

      • WWII Use of Federal Taxes: Expand Govt.

        • Amendment 16: Income Tax (1913)

        • Military Preparedness (Continues in Cold War)

    • 1960s

      • Civil Rights Movement

      • LBJ: Great Society (“War on Poverty”)

    Is the bureaucracy too big
    Is the Bureaucracy too big? CORPORATIONS

    • Department of Agriculture: NBC Learn Video

    Who are bureaucrats total federal employment
    Who Are Bureaucrats? CORPORATIONSTotal Federal Employment

    (2.7 million)

    U s military
    U. S. Military CORPORATIONS

    • 543,000 Army

    • 335,000 Navy

    • 158,000 Marines

    • 330,000 Air Force

    • 810,000 Reserves

    Who are bureaucrats hiring
    Who are Bureaucrats? CORPORATIONSHiring

    • 1800s

      • Spoils System (Patronage)

    • 1883: Pendleton Act

      • Introduce merit based system

    • Today:

      • 90% are hired by the civil service system

      • Many “indirectly employed” through sub-contracting.

        • i.e., military contractors

    What the bureaucracy does1
    What the Bureaucracy Does CORPORATIONS

    • Congress and Pres.

    • Pass a Law

    • Bureaucracy

    • Implement/Enforce


    Congress delegates authority bureaucratic autonomy
    Congress Delegates Authority/ Bureaucratic Autonomy CORPORATIONS

    • Administrative discretion:

      • in creating policies, regulations, & disbursing grants.

    • Administrative adjudication:

      • Settle disputes between two parties.

    The bank regulators book club
    “The Bank Regulators’ Book Club” CORPORATIONS

    • What was the law passed by Congress?

    • Which agency was responsible for implementing?

    • Provide MULTIPLE SPECIFIC examples of how the bureaucrats exercise ADMINISTRATIVE DISCRETION.

    • http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2011/02/04/133476579/the-bank-regulators-book-club

    Federal deposit insurance corporation
    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation CORPORATIONS

    • Formed in 1933

    • Why?

    • Independent Agency

    • Regulates Banks and Deposits

    • Insure up to $250,000

    • “Full Faith and Credit”

    Career bureaucrats v political appointments
    Career Bureaucrats v. Political Appointments CORPORATIONS

    • Agency Point of View

      • Career with one Agency

      • Continuity

      • Long term stability

      • Status Quo

      • “Protect Turf”

    • President’s Agenda

      • Temporary political agenda

      • Short term goals

      • “pet” issues/projects

      • Attempt to enact change

    Iron triangle
    Iron Triangle CORPORATIONS

    Halliburton and the iron triangle
    Halliburton and the Iron Triangle CORPORATIONS

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=deGPK54tBW4

    Accountability checks on the bureaucracy
    Accountability: Checks on the Bureaucracy CORPORATIONS

    • Congressional Control

      • Appropriate money

      • Shape laws; create regulations

      • Create Departments/Agencies

      • Investigate agencies (hearings)

      • Approve of secretaries

    Accountability checks on the bureaucracy1
    Accountability: Checks on the Bureaucracy CORPORATIONS

    • Presidential Control

      • Appointments

      • Reorganize (with Congress)

      • Budget Cuts (with Congress)

      • Executive Orders

      • Tells them how to implement

    • Judicial Control

      • Injunctions

        • (prevent an agency from acting until court officially rules on a case).

      • Threat of Litigation

      • Declare actions unconstitutional

    Department of justice

    • Federal Bureau of Investigation

    • Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms

    • Drug Enforcement Administration

    • Federal Bureau of Prisons

    Department of homeland security

    • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

    • Transportation Security Administration (TSA)

    • U.S. Coast Guard

    • U.S. Secret Service

    • Customs and Border Protection

    Department of the treasury

    • Bureau of Engraving and Printing

    • Internal Revenue Service

    • U.S. Mint