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Chapter Seventeen: The Bureaucracy of Homeland Security. Bureaucracy: The Weberian Ideal. Bureaucracy: The Weberian Ideal. Max Weber Max Weber coined the term bureaucracy to describe professional, rational organizations

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Chapter Seventeen: The Bureaucracy of Homeland Security

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Bureaucracy: The Weberian Ideal

  • Max Weber
    • Max Weber coined the term bureaucracy to describe professional, rational organizations
    • People organize for a purpose and their organizations should accomplish that purpose
    • The process is rational: There is a problem, people organize to solve it, they work together, and the problem is solved
    • Bureaucracy should be designed to accomplish specific purposes

Bureaucracy: The Weberian Ideal

  • The ideal bureaucracy
    • In Weber’s ideal, labor is to be divided into specific functions or bureaus, and all the bureaus or functions of the organization are to assemble logically to produce the whole
    • Modern bureaucratic management ideally comes from leaders who excel at leadership
    • Every aspect of the organization centers on rational efficiency

Bureaucracy: The Weberian Ideal

  • Views concerning the expanded homeland security bureaucracy
    • Supporters of one position maintain that consolidating power is efficient. They argue that a large bureaucracy with a clear mission will empower the security forces to perform their mission
    • Proponents of a second position suggest that decentralizing power personalizes services and helps develop links to communities. They believe localized, informal offices are more adept at recognizing and handling problems

The Role of Law Enforcement and Intelligence

  • The lead agency for counterterrorism: FBI
    • Under Director Robert Mueller the FBI’s charge is to prevent terrorism
    • The FBI is to coordinate intelligence gathering and sharing activities with the Border Patrol, Secret Service, and CIA
    • The FBI is to operate as partners with state and local law enforcement.
    • Finally, since the FBI is in the Department of Justice, it is to coordinate activities with DHS and the Department of Defense
the role of law enforcement and intelligence8
The Role of Law Enforcement and Intelligence
  • A new role for the CIA
    • Originally, the CIA was supposed to be the agency that would coordinate al U.S. intelligence data
    • The CIA was to operate apart from U.S. criminal law
    • Today, the CIA is to cooperate fully with the FBI on counterterrorism intelligence
the role of law enforcement and intelligence9
The Role of Law Enforcement and Intelligence
  • The Department of Homeland Security
    • DHS is also charged with counterterrorism
    • DHS includes law enforcement agencies, such as the Secret Service, the Border Patrol, the new Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the U.S. Customs Service, and other agencies
    • It has its own military, and its own intelligence section
the role of law enforcement and intelligence10
The Role of Law Enforcement and Intelligence
  • Department of Defense
    • The DOD augments civilian defense, provides special operation capabilities, and interdicts terrorists before they arrive in the United States
    • The main military role in counterterrorism is to project American power overseas
the role of law enforcement and intelligence11
The Role of Law Enforcement and Intelligence
  • The array of American power
    • In theory, led by the FBI and the CIA, multiple agencies will work together to gain information, analyze it together, and share the results with every bureaucracy concerned with homeland security
    • The FBI and the CIA are to create a cooperative, sharing atmosphere with thousands of state and local law enforcement agencies
    • DHS calls on the entire system of homeland security bureaucracies to form relations with local communities and private industry
protecting the borders13
Protecting the Borders
  • Agencies protecting the American borders
    • The Secret Service
    • The Coast Guard
    • Customs and Border Protection
    • Immigration and Customs Enforcement
    • The Federal Law Enforcement Training Center
    • The Office of Domestic Preparedness
    • The Transportation Security Administration
protecting the borders14
Protecting the Borders
  • Areas of vulnerability on the American borders
    • Long stretches of unprotected areas along the northern and southern borders are open to infiltration
    • More than three hundred seaports must be secured
    • The DHS has agencies responsible for securing entry into the United States at airports, and it is responsible for protecting air travel once the entry points are protected
    • Border agents are responsible for staffing entry points along the northern and southern borders
    • Another DHS agency has the task of accounting for noncitizens within U.S. Borders
protecting the borders15
Protecting the Borders
  • DHS protecting the borders
    • DHS cooperates with the FBI and CIA
    • DHS has increased the number of people who patrol the border
    • DHS uses technology, such as biometric measuring-- that is, identification systems based on body characteristics such as finger prints, facial patterns, or DNA
protecting the borders16
Protecting the Borders
  • Criticisms of DHS activities
    • Activities may not be effective
    • Some DHS policies have not been popular with other countries
    • Many local governments feel they need the tryst and cooperation of foreigners living in their areas
protecting the borders17
Protecting the Borders
  • 9-11 Commission Report’s recommendations for border security
    • A single agency should screen crossings with a single format
    • An investigative agency should be established to monitor aliens in the United States
    • The DHS should gather intelligence on the way terrorists travel, and combine intelligence and law enforcement activities to hamper their mobility
    • There should be a standardize method for obtaining identification and wanted passports using biometric measures
infrastructure protection19
Infrastructure Protection
  • Identification and protection of critical infrastructures
    • DHS states that law enforcement agencies will need to develop cooperative links with public and private bureaucracies, including private security organizations, educational institutions, and health care systems
infrastructure protection20
Infrastructure Protection
  • Criticisms
    • Too little is being done
    • A year after September 11, the federal government had failed to release resources to state and local governments
    • Federal law enforcement does little to assist private security
infrastructure protection21
Infrastructure Protection
  • Richard Clarke’s threats facing the nation of infrastructures
    • Most computer systems are vulnerable to viruses
    • The nation’s power system and technological organizations that support it are vulnerable to disruptions
    • The Internet and computer networks that support these systems are vulnerable to attack
infrastructure protection22
Infrastructure Protection
  • Protection of the infrastructure
    • According to Clarke, the state and local law enforcement should not play the leading role in infrastructure protection
    • Protection of the infrastructure comes when specialists in crime fighting and protection establish critical links with the public and private organizations serving America’s infrastructure
    • The police should be linked to security forces already associated with infrastructure functions
    • State and local law enforcement agencies must establish formal and informal networks with the organizations in their jurisdictions, and these networks should expand to a cooperative federal system
dhs security and police work24
DHS, Security, and Police Work
  • Local law enforcement agencies
    • The IACP believes that local law enforcement agencies will become the hinge on which all local efforts pivot
    • Homeland security entails coordinating efforts from several local organizations, including private industry, public service, health care systems, and law enforcement
    • As local agencies become involved in homeland security, they must become involved in assessing threats in their jurisdictions. They must also learn to recognize possible items that may add to national defense intelligence and develop routines to forward such information
dhs security and police work25
DHS, Security, and Police Work
  • Police and gathering defense intelligence
    • The process of gathering defense intelligence is not readily apparent in American policing
    • Police work is political, and law enforcement officers think locally
dhs security and police work26
DHS, Security, and Police Work
  • Abstract reasoning skills
    • State and local officers are not rewarded for thinking in terms of international issues or national security
    • Chiefs and sheriffs do not usually praise abstract reasoning, and higher education has done little to help this situation
    • Criminal justice programs do not produce abstract, critical thinkers for law enforcement
    • To combat terrorism, security forces require groups of people with abstract reasoning skills, knowledge of international politics and history, and specialized expertise in particular regions. However, the ethos behind policing rejects this logic
possible approaches for homeland security bureaucracies28
Possible Approaches for Homeland Security Bureaucracies
  • Legal alternatives to police participation in homeland defense
    • Gathering security information in the course of criminal investigations
    • Combine training in alertness with specialized training for selected officers
possible approaches for homeland security bureaucracies29
Possible Approaches for Homeland Security Bureaucracies
  • The FBI’s Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF)
    • The JTTF combines local, state, and various federal police officers, as well as corrections officials and prosecutors, in regional units designed to combat terrorism
possible approaches for homeland security bureaucracies30
Possible Approaches for Homeland Security Bureaucracies
  • Opposition to the JTTF
    • Local governments have refused to allow their police forces to assist in counterterrorist activities
    • Civil libertarians see the formation of a JTTF as too great of a consolidation of government power
    • State and federal courts may well limit the role of local agencies in homeland security
possible approaches for homeland security bureaucracies31
Possible Approaches for Homeland Security Bureaucracies
  • Other democracies who have had their police engage in intelligence gathering activities and have expanded their role in national defense
    • France
    • Germany
    • Canada
    • The British
bureaucratic inhibitors33
Bureaucratic Inhibitors
  • Public service organizations have foibles that emerge in the everyday social construction of reality
  • The FBI versus Police and Sheriff’s Departments
    • Many state and local police executives do not trust the FBI, and the attitude extends down through the ranks of law enforcement agencies
    • The relationship between the FBI and state and local law enforcement must improve
bureaucratic inhibitors34
Bureaucratic Inhibitors
  • Federal Law Enforcement Rivalries
    • Organizations on every level frequently act out of self-interest rather than concern with an overall mission
  • Advocates of Local Control
    • Some people feel cooperation between state and local law enforcement will result in the de fact concentration of police power
bureaucratic inhibitors35
Bureaucratic Inhibitors
  • The Problem of Legal Bureaucracy
    • The criminal justice system is actually not a system at all, but a multifaceted bureaucracy with intersecting layers
    • While police and correctional institutions represent the executive branch of the government, the courts autonomously belong to the judicial branch
bureaucratic inhibitors36
Bureaucratic Inhibitors
  • The Bureaucracy Problem
    • Change can happen, and may even be welcome, if federal agencies enter into cooperative relationships with their local counterparts
    • Large organizations are difficult to manage, and problems increase rapidly when organizational effectiveness requires cooperation on several levels
    • If the DHS can create effective partnerships with intelligence and law enforcement agencies on the federal level, it could focus attention on these issues. However, homeland security becomes a problem much larger than gathering and analyzing information
    • The problem appears in preventing terrorism, and preventing requires bureaucratic change
stephen flynn s critique of the ideal38
Stephen Flynn’s Critique of the Ideal
  • Two mistakes made by the United States
    • Homeland security has been separated from national security
    • The infrastructure is vulnerable to attack
  • Homeland security should be part of a national strategy to defend the United States
stephen flynn s critique of the ideal39
Stephen Flynn’s Critique of the Ideal
  • Weapons of mass destruction
    • According to the CIA, the most likely scenario for smuggling weapons of mass destruction into the United States is by sea
    • The Bush administration has done very little to protect the nation’s 361 seaports
stephen flynn s critique of the ideal40
Stephen Flynn’s Critique of the Ideal
  • The nation’s infrastructure
    • In the 2005 military budget, the infrastructure for the entire nation will receive only $2.6 billion, whereas the DOD was allotted $7.6 billion
  • Flynn sees a problem in strategic thinking in DHS and other agencies
  • Increased border protection will not protect America against terrorist attacks
stephen flynn s critique of the ideal41
Stephen Flynn’s Critique of the Ideal
  • Jihadists are aware of the vulnerabilities in the infrastructure
    • The safest and most effective way to hit America is to strike the infrastructure
  • Reinvent homeland security
    • DHS and other federal bureaucracies should think of security from a broad perspective
stephen flynn s critique of the ideal42
Stephen Flynn’s Critique of the Ideal
  • Flynn’s recommendations for the future
    • The best current model for homeland security is the air industry
    • When bureaucracies recover from failure, people will believe in their own safety and continue to function
    • Americans must be able to absorb a major attack and continue to function