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CHAPTER 19 Monarchs of Europe Section 1: France in the Age of Absolutism Section 2: Russia in the Age of Absolutism Section 3: Central Europe in the Age of Absolutism Section 4: The English Monarchy
Section 1: France in the Age of Absolutism Objectives: • Explain how Henry VI and Cardinal Richelieu strengthened France. • Analyze Louis XIV’s strategy for strengthening the central government. • Identify Louis XIV’s reasons for waging war and the results.
Section 1: France in the Age of Absolutism Strengthening the Monarchy • Cardinal Richelieu – worked to reduce strength of nobles and to reform the economy • The Thirty Years’ War – Protestant rebellion against Holy Roman Empire; ended with Treaty of Westphalia in 1648
Section 1: France in the Age of Absolutism The Sun King • Versailles – expense of palace strained the French economy • Domestic and economic policies – absolute power for king, increased French industry at home and trade abroad, reformed tax system, leading naval power
Section 1: France in the Age of Absolutism The Wars of Louis XIV • Fighting for new territory – natural borders, other nations fought for a balance of power • War of the Spanish Succession – Treaty of Utrecht provided that French and Spanish monarchies could never be united • Louis XIV’s legacy – France became a leading European power, but caused destruction, loss of life and resources, and loss of territory
Section 2: Russia in the Age of Absolutism Objectives: • Identify ways Russia was isolated from western Europe. • Analyze how Peter the Great used his power to change Russia. • Examine how Catherine the Great expanded Russia’s territory.
Section 2: Russia in the Age of Absolutism Isolation and a New Dynasty • Asian influence • Religious differences • Geographically separated from Europe
Section 2: Russia in the Age of Absolutism Peter the Great • Peter’s foreign mission – his attempt to form alliances against Ottoman Turks failed, but he learned many Western ways • Westernizing Russia – improved training and weaponry, Western architecture, modernization in society
Section 2: Russia in the Age of Absolutism Catherine the Great • Catherine’s policies – domestic policies were meaningless or harmful to most Russians, but foreign policies won new territory and extended the Russian empire • Poland – Russia split Poland with Prussia and Austria • Expansion eastward – Siberia and Alaska
Section 3: Central Europe in the Age of Absolutism Objectives: • Explain how the Habsburgs gained and held power. • Explain how the Hohenzollerns rose to power. • Identify the factors that contributed to conflicts between Prussia and Austria.
Section 3: Central Europe in the Age of Absolutism Habsburg Austria • Maria Theresa – Pragmatic Sanction allowed her to inherit all Habsburg lands
Section 3: Central Europe in the Age of Absolutism The Rise of the Hohenzollerns • Frederick William I – sought to make Prussia a great power, efficient system of government • Frederick the Great – highly intelligent, expanded territory and prestige
Section 3: Central Europe in the Age of Absolutism Conflict Between Prussia and Austria • The Diplomatic Revolution – reversal of alliances resulted in France and Austria opposing Prussia and Great Britain • The Seven Years’ War – began in North America as the French and Indian War • The years of peace – European powers reluctant to fight again, so rebuilt and strengthened kingdoms at home
Section 4: The English Monarchy Objectives: • Describe the rule of Mary Tudor of England. • Describe the rule of Elizabeth I. • Explain the problems James I faced in ruling England.
Section 4: The English Monarchy The House of Tudor • Mary I married Philip II of Spain • Persecuted Protestant clergy • Failed because persecutions were too extreme • “Bloody Mary”
Section 4: The English Monarchy The Reign of Elizabeth I • Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots – Mary plotted to kill Elizabeth; Elizabeth had Mary beheaded • The Spanish Armada – English ships defeated “Invincible Armada” • Religious problems – Puritans wanted to rid church of all Catholic practices; Tudors persecuted non-Anglicans • Relations with Parliament – Parliament challenged royal power, but Elizabeth managed them skillfully
Section 4: The English Monarchy James I • Son of Mary Queen of Scots, ruled England and Scotland • Strong supporter of Anglican Church, which caused conflicts with Puritans • King James Version of Bible • Lacked economic, diplomatic skill • Did not fully understand English parliamentary system • Believed in divine right of kings