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Absolute Monarchs in Europe

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  1. Absolute Monarchs in Europe Chapter Five

  2. What is absolutism? • Period of time when Europe’s monarchs got stronger • Monarchs ruled with absolute power • Divine Right Theory • Idea that God had chosen the monarch to rule • Everyone believes the theory during this period • If you question the king, you question God

  3. Europe During the Age of Absolutism

  4. Strengths of Absolute Monarchies • Efficiency • Decisions are made by one person • Nationalism • Promoted a common culture and identity • Stability • The ruler stays in power until death • Wealth • No resistance means a large and powerful empire

  5. Weaknesses of Absolute Monarchies • Undemocratic • No collaboration of ideas • Individual rights • Often violated • Stability • If the ruler was poor, it could affect the country for decades

  6. How to achieve more power? • Monarchs gained power generally in one of two ways: • Raising taxes • Increased their overall wealth and treasuries • Waging war • Victory often led to riches

  7. Absolute Monarchy-Spain • Phillip II (reign: 1554-1598) • Fought to protect and expand Catholicism • Took control of Portugal when its king died without an heir • Created an army of about 50K soldiers

  8. The Fall of the Spanish Empire • Inflation and Taxes • Spain suffered from a severe economic decline • Wars cost Spain too much money • Had to declared bankruptcy

  9. Absolute Monarchy in France • Religious Wars and Power Struggles • King Henry of Navarre-converted to Catholicism • Survived the 1572 St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (of Huguenots) • Henry’s declaration of religious toleration -Allowed Catholics and Huguenots to live in peace • Louis XIII and Richelieu • After Henry died, his son took over… Louis XIII Henry of Navarre

  10. Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu • Louis XIII was a weak King • Had an extremely powerful minister for support-Cardinal Richelieu Who… • Moved against the Huguenots and all Protestants • Weakened the Nobles power and relied on the middle class instead

  11. Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu

  12. Louis XIV Comes to Power • Louis XIV, the Boy King (1643) • Was not the true leader until 1661 • Cardinal Marazin ran the country • Louis Weakens the Noble’s Authority • Excluded the Nobles from his council • Loses his influence over the same people who gave the Monarchy its true power

  13. The Sun King’s Grand Style • King Louis spent much money on his personal life (servants, food, etc.) • Especially the Palace at Versailles • Louis Controls the Nobility • Forced Nobles to be at the palace • Making them dependant on the King • Forced them from their homes • Patronage of the Arts • Palace was the center of European arts

  14. Louis XIV “The Sun King”

  15. The Palace at Versailles

  16. The Palace at Versailles Bedroom of Louis XIV

  17. Death of Louis XIV and Legacy • Louis died in 1715 • Positive Legacy • France much more powerful • At the top of art, literature • Military leader of Europe • Negative Legacy • Constant warfare and construction • Deep debt • Unfair tax system

  18. States Form in Central Europe • Economic Contrasts with the West • Serfdom still strong in eastern Europe • Weak Empires • Ottoman Empire • Holy Roman Empire • The rise of Austria and Prussia • Due to the end of the Holy Roman Empire

  19. Ottoman Empire HRE

  20. Prussian Empire Austrian-Hungarian Empire

  21. Weak Empires Ottoman Empire Holy Roman Empire The rise of Austria and Prussia Due to the end of the Holy Roman Empire States Form in Central Europe

  22. Austria Grows Stronger Gains Hungary and Bohemia Wiped out Protestantism Maria Theresa Inherits the Throne Fought constantly with Prussia Limited the labor that nobles could force peasants to do States Form in Eastern Europe

  23. Austria Grows Stronger Gains Hungary and Bohemia Wiped out Protestantism States Form in Eastern Europe

  24. Prussia Challenges Austria • The Rise of Prussia • Became a rigidly controlled, highly militarized society • Controlled by the King and the Junker class – landowning nobles • Frederick the Great • Very practical leader – ruler as father • Atheist- established religious toleration • Very aggressive in foreign affairs

  25. War of Austrian Succession War between Prussia and Austria (1740) Fought for control of Silesia (iron, textiles) France helped Prussia, England and Austria Prussia wins in 1748, becoming a major European power Prussia Challenges Austria

  26. The Absolute Rulers of Russia • The First Czar • Ivan IV (“The Terrible”) • became czar (caesar) in 1533 • Took control over the nobles • Rule by Terror • Police force organized to track down and murder “traitors” to Ivan • Killed many nobles (boyars) and gave the land to new, more loyal nobles

  27. Ivan IV

  28. The Absolute Rulers of Russia (cont) • Rise of the Romanovs • After Ivan IV’s death (1584), there was a power vacuum • “Time of Troubles” – nobles struggling for power • 1613 Michael Romanov was chosen as the next czar • Romanov Dynasty 1613-1917

  29. Peter the Great Comes to Power1689-1725 Peter visits the West • Wanted to learn about European customs and manufacturing techniques

  30. Peter the Great

  31. St. Petersburg The Cathedral of the Spilled Blood

  32. Parliament Limits the English Monarchy • Monarchs Defy Parliament • King James’s Problems • Offended Puritan members of Parliament • Fought over money • King Charles I Fights Parliament • Wanted money, Parliament refused each time – he dissolved Parliament • Parliament forced him to sign the Petition of Right – took power from King • He did, but then just ignored it

  33. On a side note…The Magna Carta • 1. Henry II’s son, Richard the Lion-Hearted assumed the throne after his death • 2. Richard’s brother John, an unpopular king, followed him and fights a costly & unsuccessful war with France • 3. People don’t like to lose money • 4. Those with money ( the English nobles)rebelled & forced John to grant guarantees of certain traditional political rights in the form of…

  34. The Magna Carta …presented their demands to him in written form as the Magna Carta (Great Charter). • Served as the major source of traditional English respect for individual rights & liberties… • served as a contract between the king & nobles of England • It implied the idea that monarchs had to govern according to common law not divine law

  35. King James then King Charles • As king, James I continued to ignore parliamentary courts, which used common law. because of this… The people began to accuse the king of tyranny. Then came King Charles

  36. Parliament Overthrows the King • The troubles under James became explosions under his son, Charles I, who became king in 1625. He asked Parliament for money in 1628. • In return for money, Parliament tried to limit royal power further with the Petition of Right ( document against theories of absolute monarchy). It demanded an end to • taxing without Parliament’s consent • imprisoning citizens illegally • housing troops in citizens’ homes • maintaining military government in peacetime

  37. The End of Charles I • Charles agreed to sign the petition. • Then, he ignored the commitments secured in the document. • Charles dismissed Parliament in 1629 and refused to convene it again. • Parliament passed laws to reduce the power of the monarchy, angering the king. Grievances continued to grow. • In 1642, the English Civil War broke out; Royalists, who upheld the monarchy, were opposed by antiroyalists, who supported Parliament.

  38. English Civil War • War Topples a King • Parliament tried to limit the powers of King Charles I – starts a war instead • English Civil War (1642-1649) • Royalists (Cavaliers) vs. Roundheads • Puritan Roundheads won • Tried, convicted and executed Charles I • Never had a monarch been tried and executed

  39. English Civil War (cont) • Oliver Cromwell’s Rule • General during the war who now led the country • Established a republican government • Had to squash a rebellion in Ireland • Puritan Morality • Sought to reform society • Abolish sinful activities – sports, theater • Religious toleration for all except Catholics • Cromwell ruled until death, gov’t collapsed

  40. Charles I Commanded by their leader Oliver Cromwell, antiroyalists won control of the government… Soon after …Charles was condemned as a “tyrant, murderer, and public enemy” and, in 1649, was executed.

  41. Establishment of Constitutional Monarchy • After Charles’s execution, Cromwell established a republic called the Commonwealth of England. After failing to gain full support from Parliament… 2. In 1653 he dissolved Parliament and created a government called the Protectorate. He named himself Lord Protector, in effect becoming a military dictator. 3. Cromwell’s son Richard is a failure leading to him resigning and in 1660, a new Parliament restored the monarchy and invited Charles Stuart, the son of Charles I, to take the throne.

  42. Oliver Cromwell

  43. Restoration and Revolution • Charles II Reigns • Restored the Monarchy of England • Reformed the legal system • James II and the Glorious Revolution • King James offended many b/c of his Catholicism • Parliament worried of a Catholic line of Kings • James’s Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William were asked by Parliament to overthrow James • William invaded, and James fled – Bloodless Revolution known as the Glorious Revolution

  44. King Charles II and King James II

  45. England’s Legacy & Influence Parliament had established its right to limit the English monarch’s power and to control succession to the throne, making it a constitutional monarchy, in which the powers of the ruler are restricted by the constitution and the laws of the country. This was done through the…

  46. English Bill of Rights In 1689, William and Mary accepted from Parliament a The English Bill of Rights which limited the monarchy’s power and protected free speech in Parliament. • Ruler cannot: • Suspend Parliament’s laws • Levy taxes without permission • Interfere with freedom of speech • Penalize a citizen who criticizes the King

  47. Limits On A Monarchs Power • Bill of Rights • William and Mary established a constitutional monarchy • Limits on royal power increased • Cabinet System Develops • Became the link between the King and Parliament - advisors to the King • Leader of the majority party heads the cabinet – Prime Minister

  48. Why This Is Important? • The United States adopted many of the government reforms and institutions that the English developed in this period. including… • Habeus corpus • freedom of speech • freedom of worship • strong executive and legislative governments checking each other 2. From Magna Carta to Bill of Rights, these legal and political developments, along with the ideas of the Enlightenment, would give rise to democratic revolutions in America and France in the late 18th century.